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[369] each evening to the Confederate column. His adversaries had made no preparations to receive him. Believing Kentucky to be protected by Buell's army against any serious invasion, they did not anticipate any raid except from guerillas. Consequently, their active forces consisted merely of cavalry and a few infantry regiments scattered along the lines of railways. The latter were posted behind the stockades, a species of small wooden fortifications resembling vast block-houses, very useful for repulsing a band of partisans, but incapable of resisting a regular attack. At the first news of the invasion of Kentucky, a feeling of uneasiness had spread on both sides of the Ohio.

General Lewis Wallace, extremely popular in that country, had hastened to Louisville with a regiment from Indiana. The important post of Lexington, the principal intersection of the railways of the State, had been entrusted to his care, and he had soon gathered around him some Ohio regiments which came over from Cincinnati, and the Unionists of Kentucky who swelled the ranks of the troops raised in that State. His forces amounted to about ten thousand men at the utmost, to whom he had imparted his own ardor; but as they had only been eight days together, they had neither experience nor cohesion. The removal of Wallace deprived his soldiers of the only incentive that could have sustained them—confidence in their chief. Kirby Smith had it all his own way. All he had to do was to push forward rapidly, which he knew how to do; besides, the character of the country through which he was passing did not allow him to stop. The first object of his expedition was to reach Lexington. He had started about the 22d of August, following the route which leads directly northward through Jacksboroa and Big Creek Gap, while his cavalry, nine hundred strong, with several light batteries, which had left Kingston a few days before, had made a large detour to the west in order to secure his left flank. This cavalry, under Colonel Scott, passing through Montgomery, Jamestown in Tennessee and Monticello, had crossed the old battle-field of Mill Springs, then Somerset, and had finally reached Loudon on the very day that Smith had taken up the line of march with his column. A small body of Federal cavalry under Colonel Metcalfe was encamped on the other side of the Big Hill pass, which

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