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[373] seeing, as he had hoped, the great city of Cincinnati imploring for mercy, and even aiding his soldiers to cross the river, to escape a bombardment, he found every preparation for an energetic resistance. At the news of the Richmond disaster, Wallace had been summoned to Cincinnati by the governor of the State. His first act was to close all the shops and places of business; then, calling all the citizens to the public squares, he had furnished them with implements. Forty thousand men were set to work in raising entrenchments around the suburbs of Covington, while all the steamers were hastily armed with cannon.

Seeing that he would not be able to seize this rich prey by a sudden dash, Heth withdrew the same evening, September 15th, and fell back upon the town of Frankfort, which a portion of Smith's troops had just occupied. The capture of the latter town might have produced a certain effect upon the vacillating population, ready to group themselves around the secession authorities whom the Confederate generals were about to install in the official capital of the State. In a military point of view, however, this town had but one advantage—that of enabling these generals to cross the Kentucky River without difficulty, and was in reality but the first stage toward Louisville, which city he could have entered that very day without making an unnecessary circuit northward.

Besides, Kirby Smith was about to surrender the principal part in the drama to the two large armies which had just come upon the scene under the orders of Bragg and Buell. We left the Confederate general crossing the Tennessee, above Chattanooga, on the 21st of August, at the head of about forty thousand men. An almost impenetrable barrier of rugged mountains separated him from the left of the Federals. Since the 19th of August the latter had got wind of his preparations for crossing that river, but were unable to ascertain on which side he would attack them. Thomas had correctly guessed his intentions, and on the 22d he notified his chief that the enemy was certainly trying to turn his left to enter Kentucky. Buell, however, believed, on the contrary, that he would cross the mountains to attack him in front; he even entertained fears for his right, and attributed to Bragg the strange design of invading North Alabama. Instead of concentrating his

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