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[456] issuing an order which he considered fatal, until the 20th, and Sherman for having hastened his departure because he had indirectly, perhaps, obtained knowledge of it? Certainly not. The reorganization ordered by Mr. Lincoln, accompanied by a change of command, would have caused a loss of time, which then appeared very precious, since it was desired to attack Vicksburg while Grant was detaining Pemberton at Grenada, and it was impossible to foresee the events which were at one stroke to restore freedom of action to the latter, and to separate the Federal general from his lieutenants.

The troops assembled at Memphis formed a corps designated as the right wing of the army of the Mississippi. The reinforcements which Sherman had recently received swelled the number of his soldiers to about thirty thousand, out of which he could count about twenty thousand available combatants; these forces were disposed in three divisions under command of Generals A. J. Smith, M. L. Smith and Morgan. When Sherman gave the order for embarking on the 20th, the preparations for so complicated an operation were not entirely completed. All the steamers that could be found had been collected together on the Mississippi and the Ohio, but the difficulties were even greater than those which had attended the transportation of the army of the Potomac to Fortress Monroe, for the thirty thousand men that McClellan had transported at one time had only been two days on the way, whilst the transportation undertaken by Sherman occupied at least five or six. It was impossible, therefore, to avoid a certain amount of confusion in the embarkation, especially as the preceding day was pay-day. As we have observed elsewhere, the American soldier was only paid once in two months, so that at times, at the moment of leaving a city like Memphis, which, it may be said, was nothing but a vast sutler's store, he found himself exposed, with a considerable sum of money in his possession, to all the temptations which that city offered him. In the camps, owing to the absolute prohibition of the sale of strong liquors, drunkenness was unknown, but elsewhere this vice could not be so completely suppressed. Sherman's orders, however, were promptly executed, and the stragglers soon collected together, seeing that all the fleet had left the piers at Memphis by

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