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[552] Hedgeman's River, presented a line a little above that village, along which he hoped to be able to arrest the Federals, while his right flank was covered by the Rappahannock, which, below the confluence of this river, assumes the proportions of a large water-course. Jackson, meanwhile, remained in the valley of Virginia with his corps and Stuart's cavalry. Breaking up his camps, which for the last six weeks had been at Martinsburg and Bunker's Hill, he proceeded to take position at Millwood, on the Shenandoah, at the foot of Ashby's Gap, in order the better to watch the movements of the Federals. Stuart pressed the latter very closely, sometimes remaining on the crest of the Blue Ridge, whence he could perceive their long columns from a distance, at other times descending into the valley which stretched out below him and boldly disputing the ground with them whenever he found an opportunity. His battery of artillery, almost entirely served by Europeans, was of powerful assistance to him in this kind of warfare, and was remarkable for its precision of aim—a very rare thing in the Southern armies. But, since the time when the inexperience of the Federal cavalry made Stuart's task an easy one, his adversaries had learned much. Pleasanton and his brigade, who cleared McClellan's march, asked nothing better than to measure strength with the Confederate cavalry, and revenge themselves for not having been able to catch them in their raid across Maryland. A favorable opportunity for accomplishing this presented itself to the Union troops on the 2d of November. While the Second corps was occupying Snicker's Gap, Pleasanton pushed forward in the direction of Ashby's Gap. At Union village he met a brigade of the enemy's cavalry, which he dislodged after a sharp fight. The next day, having been reinforced by Averill, he continued his march. Stuart was waiting for him with his entire division in front of the village of Upperville, determined to resist as long as he could in order to defend the pass of Ashby's Gap. But the Federals attacked him so vigorously that he was soon overthrown and driven in disorder through Upperville as far as the village of Paris, at the very entrance of the pass.

In the mean time, the Federal infantry followed the movement

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