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[572] Fredericksburg, is supported by a sustaining wall of stone, which also rises above the level of the road as a parapet. Beyond the road the ground sinks gradually as far as the ditch which serves as an outlet to the canal, rising again afterward in the direction of the town; the whole of this space is bare, and only intersected by fences formed of stumps of trees or boards, which afford no shelter to an assailant. A double line of breastworks and redoubts crowned the summit of the two terraces, while at the foot of the second the wall by which the road is bounded had, with the addition of some earth, been converted into a continuous work, behind which the infantry found absolute protection, and from which it could cover with its fire the whole space intervening between its positions and the ditch.

The hillock over which the Telegraph Road passes after crossing Hazel Run, and which at a later period was denominated Lee's Hill, was also covered with several redoubts, which enfiladed this road and completely flanked the positions of Marye's Hill. This hillock, as well as those extending south-westward in the direction of Deep Run, gradually sinks, until they reach the plain which separates them from the Rappahannock, through a succession of gentle slopes covered here and there with patches of isolated wood. They formed the centre of the Confederate position; and although placed in the rear of the two wings, they were defended by a number of works. The right of this position comprised the group of hills which separate Deep Run from the Massaponax before these two water-courses enter the plain. This range of hills terminates at the north-west on the borders of Deep Run, at a point called Bernard's Cabin, and at the south-east in Prospect Hill, behind which the Massaponax pursues its winding course. Upon the slope of Prospect Hill is situated the handsome residence of Captain Hamilton; a little lower down a road detached from the Telegraph Road traverses the property, and crossing the railway track on a level strikes the old Richmond Road, twelve hundred metres beyond. The latter road, as we have said, follows a direction across the plain, nearly parallel to the Rappahannock, at a distance of one or two kilometres from its banks. The railroad, after successively crossing Hazel Run and Deep Run at some hundred metres above the road, touches

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