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[659] in the regular army and twenty-two thousand in the navy. In order to avoid too great a multiplicity of regiments, and to secure recruiting for those already in existence, the Secretary of War issued a circular, dated December 3d, informing the governors of States that, unless a special requisition was made by the Washington authorities to that effect, they were no longer authorized to form new regiments on the responsibility of the Federal government, and that all recruits enlisted were to be embodied in regiments already existing. It is useless to add that these mandates could not be applied in regard to the local militia, who were placed under the exclusive authority of the governors, and liable at all times to be summoned by them in case of danger.

At its extra session Congress had adopted a rule to entertain only such pressing questions as had reference to the civil war. Military and financial measures, together with motions relating to slavery and the right of secession, had occupied all their time. This was not the case at its second session, which lasted seven months and a half, from the 2d of December, 1861, to the 17th of July, 1862. Still, these questions continued to occupy the foremost rank in the deliberations of Congress.

The republican element predominated more and more in both houses. This was in consequence of the defection of some members, who, following the example of Breckenridge, had at last thrown off the mask, and the expulsion of others convicted of being in communication with the enemy. Upon all questions involving the maintenance of the Union the War Democrats sustained the government, which was only opposed by a few Peace Democrats. But whenever the subject of slavery was under consideration, or the daily conduct of the administration provoked discussion, Democrats of both shades united in stern opposition; and this the government had to expect.

The leaders of the Republican party, who blamed the President for showing too much favor to those opponents who supported his general policy, caused him, however, more embarrassment than this opposition. The bargains which he had been obliged to make, and the proposals he had invited during the year 1861, in order to provide for the armament and equipment of the armies he was creating of all kinds of material, were the subject of sharp debates

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