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[683] order published on the 8th of August, 1862. The military police was empowered to arrest all individuals accused of holding intercourse with the enemy, or of aiding the latter in any way whatever, either by opposing enlistments or encouraging refractory persons; at the same time, this military police was reorganized, and its authority was made to extend over the whole territory of the republic. A provost-marshal-general was stationed at Washington, and a certain number of provost-marshals, all subordinates to the general, were placed in charge of this police in every State. The judge-advocate was placed at the head of it, with power to control its action and to take cognizance of all complaints to which the exercise of its functions might give rise. Finally, in a proclamation issued on the 24th of September, the President sanctioned the authority he had thus delegated, by suspending the habeas corpus in all the camps, prisons and establishments submitted to military authority. This legislation, so contrary to American usages, but indispensable to ensure the application of the conscription law, was accepted without opposition.

In fact, when, on the meeting of Congress in December, 1862, the Peace Democrats made another attack upon the government in relation to the habeas corpus, no notice was taken of their denunciations. The vote of censure asked for by the opposition was again refused in both houses by large majorities. They were, moreover, about to pass a law conferring upon the President in explicit terms the power he had thus been exercising for nearly two years with their consent. This law having only gone into operation on the 1st of March, 1863, it belongs to another portion of our history.

We shall conclude this sketch of the political legislation in the North during the first two years of the war by reminding the reader that the right of summary arrest was exercised by the President, not only against individuals, but also against newspapers, if we may so express ourselves. At the outset of Mr. Lincoln's administration some of the journals published in the great Northern cities openly preached rebellion; the respect usually entertained for the liberty of the press, and the small amount of influence which these papers exercised over the public mind, secured them for some time perfect impunity. Finally, on the

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