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[684] 10th of August, 1861, five newspapers published in New York were indicted by the grand jury of the circuit court of that city. As it was almost impossible to prosecute them criminally, the government decided to refuse them transportation by mail. This measure, which the most distinguished jurists declared to be perfectly constitutional, was frequently applied afterward, and Congress, after voting down a resolution of censure on this subject, which was introduced on the 1st of December, 1862, sanctioned the measure implicitly in the course of 1863. The government had no need of resorting to this measure in order to silence that portion of the press which was in favor of the South in the districts subject to military authority, such as Baltimore, Washington, St. Louis, and all that region of country which had been reconquered by the force of arms; for this authority, being invested with discretionary power by the state of war, never hesitated to suppress the newspapers, whose editors were frequently imprisoned.

We shall now devote a few pages to a brief examination of the internal policy of the Southern Confederacy, embracing, as above, the military and financial laws and the measures relating to personal liberty. As we have said in the first volume, the representatives of the six States which had given the signal of separation had met at Montgomery in the early part of February, and had established a provisional government, the duration of which was limited to one year. Messrs. Davis and Stephens were elected on the 9th of February as President and Vice President of this government, and the assembly of delegates arrogated to itself full legislative powers, with the title of Provisional Congress. It held four sessions-two at Montgomery, from the 4th of February to the 4th of March, 1861, and from the 6th to the 11th of May; two at Richmond, from the 20th of July to the 2d of September, and from the 18th of November, 1861, to the 18th of February, 1862. During these sessions the number of States represented in this Congress increased from six to thirteen. The first six were Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi and South Carolina. The representatives of Texas were admitted to seats in Congress in 1861, those of Virginia and Arkansas in May, those of Tennessee and North Carolina in June, and finally

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