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[685] those of Kentucky and Missouri in December. The permanent government formed under the new Constitution was organized in February, 1862; Messrs. Davis and Stephens were invested for six years with the powers they already exercised, and their solemn installation took place on the 22d of February, the anniversary of Washington's birth. The new Congress, composed of two houses similar to those of the national legislature at Washington met for the first time at Richmond, on the very day when the provisional assembly ceased to exist. It held two sessions during the year 1862, from the 18th of February to the 21st of April, and from the 12th of August to the 13th of October.

On the 28th of February, 1861, even before Mr. Buchanan had been succeeded in the presidency of the United States by Mr. Lincoln, the Southern Congress passed a law providing for the organization of the military forces of the new Confederacy. The President was invested with the supreme command of all these forces; the conduct of the war and the custody of the common defences were thus withdrawn from the local authorities and centralized in his hands. These functionaries were ordered to transfer to him all the arms and ammunition that had belonged to the Federal government, and he was authorized to enroll all the volunteers whose services he should deem proper to accept into the service of the Confederacy. The term of enlistment of these volunteers was fixed at twelve months. The militia continued exclusively subject to the authority of the governors of States, but the law of March 6th gave the President power to enroll them likewise in the national service for one year, to the number of one hundred thousand men. The Confederacy, at the time of the battle of Bull Run, had, therefore, about two hundred thousand men under arms. When it was seen that the defeated North, far from giving up the struggle, had called for five hundred thousand volunteers, the Southern leaders felt that, in order to preserve the prestige of victory, it was necessary to impose sacrifices of equal magnitude upon the people of the South. On the 3d of August, Congress authorized the President to raise four hundred thousand volunteers to serve for not less than twelve months and not more than three years, and a few days later, August 21st, another law was passed regulating the

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