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[689] promotions. Whilst stipulating that the rank of second lieutenant should be made elective, and the other grades awarded according to seniority, it allowed the President to disregard this rule whenever he thought proper, and to make direct appointments of officers or non-commissioned officers to fill vacancies that might occur, without the intervention of the soldiers or of the governors of States.

The cases of exemption were regulated and often modified by subsequent legislation. We give them as they were definitely settled at a later period, at the beginning of 1864, the law of February of this year being the only one affording any precise information on the subject. Exemption from military service was granted to persons declared by the medical board unfit for such service, to ministers of religion, to the heads of charitable institutions, to the principal editors of newspapers .and to those in their employ whose services they represented under oath to be indispensable, to State printers, to one person in every druggist establishment, to physicians over thirty years of age and with seven years practice, to directors and professors of colleges having more than thirty pupils, and to the necessary personnel of hospitals, railroads and post-offices; and lastly, to one person on every farm employing more than fifteen able-bodied slaves, and on which there was no white man already exempt from military services. These farmers had to ransom themselves by payment of one hundred pounds of salt meat. The law of April 16th allowed, moreover, to all drafted men the privilege of providing a substitute in their places, the latter to be himself an exempt, reserving to the government the right of mustering them into service if this substitute failed to appear from any other cause than the casualties of war. This clause was abolished by the law of 1864, which mustered into the service all persons who had already procured substitutes.

A few days later, April 21, 1862, the organization of a partisan corps led to the enactment of another law, empowering the President to bestow special commissions upon their leaders, and to secure them the legal character of belligerents. Finally, the Confederate Congress and the legislatures of the different States passed several laws to facilitate and encourage the levying of volunteer corps composed of men freed from compulsory service;

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