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[703] of the Confederate government, which consisted almost exclusively of the costs of the war, and may be easily calculated according to the total amount of receipts. But in comparing them with those of the North we must take into account the constant variation of the monetary standard, which, by its continual depreciations, swelled in appearance all the figures contained in the Confederate budgets. We shall merely endeavor to convey an idea of these variations, by quoting a single estimate of the expenses incurred during the year 1863, about which the documentary evidence is particularly exact.

The premium on gold during that period averaging four hundred per cent., the real value of the expenses incurred must be diminished by four-fifths. We, therefore, insert below, in two separate columns, the nominal and real values, deducting the redeemed notes from the budget:

Nominal Value.Approximate Real Value.
Expenses of the War Department$377,988,244$75,597,650
Expenses of the Navy Department38,437,6617,687,530
Expenses of the Civil and Contingent11,629,2782,325,850
Expenses of the Custom-houses56,63611,330
Expenses of the Public Debt32,212,2906,442,460
————————
$460,324,109$92,064,820

To follow the same plan we have pursued above, we should close this sketch of the internal policy and condition of the Confederacy with a few remarks upon the laws which struck at the personal liberty of citizens. We have already seen how little this liberty was respected from the early stages of secession, when it seemed to interfere with the pretended unity of the secession movement; the guarantees laid down in the new Constitution were never of any effect against the authority of the government, which alleged the supreme necessities of war; and if Congress waited until 1864 to suspend the habeas corpus, which was under its exclusive protection, its vote only served to legalize practices which had been adopted and followed long before. The Richmond government cannot certainly be blamed for having sought to ensure the safety of its armies in the field by summary arrests. But it did not stop here; and wherever its policy encountered

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