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[704] any opposition, it broke it down by the application of measures the rigor of which was in strange contrast with the theories of local independence which the government itself advanced in order to justify the insurrection. Thus, for instance, East Tennessee, having shown her loyalty to the old Constitution by nominating Union representatives at all the elections, and by not furnishing a single volunteer for the Confederate armies, was treated by Mr. Davis and the governor of the State as a rebellious and conquered country.

The Unionists had two prominent leaders in that region. One, Andrew Johnson, a man of the middle class, through his eloquence had attained to senatorial dignity at Washington. He had continued in that position after the secession of his own State; and when the Federal armies entered Nashville, he was appointed military governor of Tennessee, with the rank of brigadier-general—a necessary title to qualify him for the performance of those functions. It is known that the death of Mr. Lincoln called him to the presidential chair in 1865. The other was a Protestant minister, known as Parson Brownlow. Preaching either in a church, or in the open air mounted upon the stump of a tree, and with as fiery a zeal as Johnson displayed in discoursing upon politics, as passionate and intolerant as his adversaries, endowed with indefatigable energy and peculiar strength, which, it is said, he did not hesitate to bring to the support of his logic when his arguments failed to accomplish his object,—he had all the requisites for exercising a powerful influence over the rough mountaineers of the Alleghanies. He was persecuted, imprisoned and driven away.

East Tennessee was occupied by the military, and all the youth of the country carried away by force to fill up the ranks of the Confederate army. Such a violent measure could not fail to create a great deal of dissatisfaction. All refractory persons were mercilessly persecuted, and those who gave them shelter severely punished. They were treated as rebels. The oath of allegiance was imposed by the military authorities upon all the population of that region. This oath was already a subject of discussion when the Federals exacted it in support of a Constitution which had long been established and by universal consent, but this time

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