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[713] the two parties. But at the same time, they restricted the use of paroles, recognizing only those which had been given in due form, and binding the victor not to release his prisoners, until the fact of their bonafide capture had been verified by some days' detention. They thus put an end to the abuses we have noticed above. Although their work was to be abruptly brought to a close before the end of the conflict, by the refusal of the South to treat colored soldiers as prisoners of war, it will stand as a useful example to follow, for those who may seek to mitigate the sufferings of future wars.

The cartel of the 22d of July had scarcely been signed when the difficulties contemplated in one of its last clauses began to develop themselves. But these difficulties, arising from the treatment of citizens and partisans more or less regularly enrolled in the service of the Confederacy, occurred, as we have before observed, prior to the conferences held between the two negotiators at Haxall's Landing.

The use of requisitions for supplies in kind is a necessity justified by the custom of war. All armies in the field are obliged to resort to them in order to secure provisions and means of transportation, in a friendly as well as in a hostile country, and the inhabitants who are affected have no right to complain when they receive vouchers signed by officers regularly authorized to issue them in exchange for the articles required. The proffer of these vouchers constitutes the distinction between regular requisitions and plunder. The American armies never exacted war contributions of the towns they occupied; they very seldom plundered; and as they derived nearly all their resources from their depots situated in the interior, they only resorted to requisitions with extreme moderation. It has even been made a matter of reproach against General McClellan that he carried to excess his protection of private property in the country occupied by his troops. During all his campaigns he watched with particular care over the safety of farms, cattle and lands under cultivation, which lay among his camps or along the roads followed by his soldiers; and the author remembers even to have seen, at the very height of the battle of Frazier's Farm, a sentinel stationed at the foot of a cherry tree loaded with fruit, which the Federal soldiers, thirsty after a long

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