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[715] standard of secession could only have been treated as an ordinary criminal. More to the south, in Missouri and Kentucky, he would shelter himself behind the name of partisan or militiaman. Farther yet, in Tennessee or in Virginia, he was a regularly recognized enemy. The Federals always treated those who fell into their hands on the field of battle, having a commission from the hostile government, as prisoners of war. Thus, for instance, after the capitulation of Donelson, General Buckner, who had organized the secession troops in Kentucky, having been claimed by the Union authorities of that State for the purpose of being tried on a criminal charge, Mr. Lincoln set aside the demand, and took the first opportunity to exchange him. The Washington government had the same consideration for the partisans who fought openly in uniform and respected the rules of war. But the safety of its own soldiers, and that of the inhabitants who sought the protection of the Federal flag, did not permit crimes committed against all the usages of civilized nations to go unpunished. Lawless men in Missouri took advantage of the state of war to indulge in acts of violence of every description. Some of them were made to suffer capital punishment, justly due to their excesses. The Confederate government protested, assuming to throw the shield of its protection over these wretches. Wherever the Federal armies passed, a certain number of the inhabitants, after professing to be peaceful citizens, would go into ambush in the woods to assassinate stragglers, and even the wounded. Those who were thus taken with arms in hand and without uniform were all shot. This was only justice; and they must have known to what they exposed themselves by playing such a double game. But the Unionists, exasperated by these assassinations, sometimes exceeded all bounds, seeking, as we have too often seen in European wars, to make the inoffensive population responsible for the acts of partisans who were found in their neighborhood. This odious system was especially applied by General Von Steinwehr in Virginia, who made it a practice to seize hostages in every village near which his troops had met with any partisans, threatening to shoot them if the Confederates continued that kind of warfare against him. His chief, General Pope, having committed the grave error of sanctioning such proceedings, the

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