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[734] the several clauses of the law, and forbade officers from admitting to their camps the employes of the civil police engaged in the search of slaves, without a permit signed by himself.

Being obliged to respect the legislative independence of the border States, Congress had been unable, notwithstanding its offers of assistance, to make them adopt the system of gradual emancipation, but it determined to set them the example, by applying this system to the District of Columbia, placed by the Constitution under its immediate jurisdiction. Congress had been invested with absolute authority over this territory by the Constitution to secure its dignity, so that it might not be surrounded by institutions and laws at variance with its policy. It could not, therefore, allow slavery to exist there; on the 16th of April it voted its immediate and general abolition, placing, at the same time, one million of dollars to the credit of a special commission, empowered to grant an indemnity to slave-owners who had not made common cause with the enemy, at the rate of not more than three hundred dollars for each slave. This was the first measure adopted endorsing the abolition principle in a practical and formal manner. In granting compensation to the material interests affected by this measure, the Federal government gave proof of its moderation and sense of equity. It sought to avail itself of this opportunity to try an experiment that Mr. Lincoln had already recommended, and from which he wrongly anticipated great results; the sum of one hundred thousand dollars was appropriated for the purpose of encouraging the emigration of freedmen. Timid men, who, lacking the courage to cut away a difficulty, desired to smother it, had imagined that, abolition being once proclaimed, it would be easy to get rid of the negro race by transplanting it into another country. This was showing great ignorance of the character of that race and the circumstances surrounding it. Its rapid development in the Southern States, despite its condition of servitude, shows that that portion of the new continent, from its climate and entire nature, is particularly favorable to the race. It had been transplanted there by force, but it had taken root and could not be eradicated. African blood, more or less mixed, will ever circulate in the veins of a large portion of the inhabitants

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