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[736] principles wherever they did not clash with the provisions of the Constitution. On the 21st of May a law was passed proclaiming the equality of all citizens in that district, without distinction of color, and declaring that they should all be subject to the same laws, the same regulations and the same penalties, and finally opening the school doors to children of African descent. A few days later, Congress officially recognized the republics of Hayti and Liberia, by voting, on the 3d of June, the necessary appropriations for establishing diplomatic relations with them; the statesmen of the South had always opposed this recognition to avoid being obliged to receive negro envoys at Washington. In the course of the same month Congress gave proof of the determination and spirit which animated it, by a decision which was otherwise also of great importance. We have seen that the struggle between slavery and free labor had its principal theatre in the newly-settled Territories, which were under the direct control of the central authority. The introduction of slavery into or its exclusion from these Territories had been the occasion of all the great parliamentary conflicts between the partisans of the two systems; it was always the same question under the different names of Mason and Dixon's line, squatter sovereignty, and, still more recently, the Crittenden compromise. Shortly after the breaking out of hostilities, Congress, not being yet willing to decide it, had constituted the three new Territories of Colorado, Nevada and Dakotah, without explicitly prohibiting slavery in them. But in 1862 the time for concessions had passed, and on the 24th of March the House of Representatives discussed a resolution declaring that the servile institution should henceforth be excluded from the Federal Territories. Such a law was perfectly constitutional, the South having recognized the right of the central power to determine the legislation of the new Territories on the subject of slavery, at a time when she was in hopes of being herself benefited by such recognition. It was not the less the occasion of tempestuous debates, for it raised an impassable barrier around the slave States, and closed the door against every new compromise. This law was finally passed, and the President approved it on the 19th of June. Finally, on the 9th of July, the equality of the blacks with the whites in the District of Columbia was partially

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