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[740] eight hundred millions, which expense, if all the other States had been included, would have been increased to more than five thousand millions.

No notice was taken of Mr. Lincoln's message for some time; Congress was then occupied with the question of enfranchisement from another point of view; it was discussing the second confiscation law, which was passed by the House of Representatives on the 15th of July, by the Senate on the 16th, and promulgated by the President on the 17th. We have already alluded to some of the clauses of this law; its wording alone, differing essentially from that of the law of August 6, 1861, is sufficient to show the progress of abolition ideas under the influence of one year of war. For the first time slaves are designated without any circumlocution; they are only called slaves to say that they are free. It is no longer as contraband of war that the legislator refuses to send them back to servitude; the law grants freedom to all whose masters have in any way been connected with the rebellion. This enfranchisement is as yet only a penal measure adopted against a certain class of slave-owners; for under the Constitution the principle itself of slavery cannot be attacked without passing through all the forms prescribed for the amendment of the Federal compact, and it protects the servile institution in the border States which have remained faithful to that compact. But this measure is so general in its application that it may be considered as the adoption by the North of the abolition policy. Henceforth the proprietors of slaves who have fled at the approach of the Federal armies will be considered by that fact alone as hostile, and the slaves they have left behind them are to be free. The fugitive slave law will no longer be applied in the free States, unless the person who claims a slave can give evidence of his loyalty to the Union, and the military are again forbidden to take cognizance of such demands. The admission of enfranchised negroes in the army was formally sanctioned, and the President was authorized to enrol them on the only condition of their being treated in every respect like white soldiers. Finally, the Utopian scheme of emigration received some encouragement, not of a very compromising character, however, by the insertion of a clause which allowed the President to take all necessary measures for

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