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[37] in August, 1623, and was well received; a few months later John Lyford, ‘the minister,’ arrived and was welcomed with special favor and a more liberal support than had been allowed any one else. ‘In some short time,’ says Nathaniel Morton,1‘he fell into acquaintance with Mr. John Oldham, who was a co-partner with him in his after courses; not long after both Oldham and he grew very perverse, and showed a spirit of great malignity, drawing as many into a faction as they could; were they never so vile or prophane, they did nourish and abet them in all their doings, so they would but cleave to them, and speak against the church.’ ‘Oldham being called to watch (according to order) and refuseth to come, fell out with the captain, called him Rascall and beggarly Rascall, and resisted him, and drew his knife at him, though he offered him no wrong, nor gave him any ill terms, but with all fairness required him to do his duty; the Governour hearing the tumult, sent to quiet it; but he ranted with great fury and called them all Traitors; but being committed to prison, after a while he came to himself, and with some slight punishment was let go upon his behaviour for further censure.’ Upon the sailing of the Charity for England in July, 1624, Governor Bradford followed her a few miles to sea and procured copies of letters which both Lyford and Oldham had written, full of complaints and disaffection. After a more open act of insubordination in setting up a separate public meeting on the Lord's day, a General Court was summoned and they were tried, their letters being produced in evidence against them, where upon ‘Oldham began to be furious, and to rage because they had intercepted their letters,’ and provoked the people to mutiny on the spot. They were both convicted and sentenced to banishment from the colony. Lyford played the penitent so well that his sentence was remitted, and he was restored to the ministry. Oldham went to Nantasket, whence he returned the next Spring and again abused the authorities, whereupon a second sentence of banishment ‘was performed after a solemn invention in this manner: A lane of ’

1 New England's Memorial, p. 73, 74.

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