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[205] these were abolished. In the courts of justice,
Chap. VI.} 1642
a near approach was made to the laws and customs of England. Religion was provided for; the law about 1642 land-titles adjusted; an amicable treaty with Maryland successfully matured; and peace with the Indians confirmed. Taxes were assessed, not in proportion to numbers, but to men's abilities and estates. The spirit of liberty, displayed in the English parliament, was transmitted to America; and the rights of property, the freedom of industry, the solemn exercise of civil franchises, seemed to be secured to themselves and their posterity. ‘A future immunity from taxes and impositions,’ except such as should be freely voted for their own wants, ‘was expected as the fruits of the endeavors of their legislature.’1 As the restraints with which colonial navigation was threatened, were not enforced,2 they attracted no attention; and Virginia enjoyed nearly all the liberties which a monarch could concede, and retain his supremacy.

Believing themselves secure of all their privileges, the triumph of the popular party in England did not alter the condition or the affections of the Virginians. The commissioners appointed by parliament, with unlimited authority over the plantations,3 found no favor in Virginia. They promised, indeed, freedom from English taxation; but this immunity was already enjoyed. They gave the colony liberty to choose its own governor; but it had no dislike to berkeley; and though there was a party for the parliament, yet the king's authority was maintained.4 The sovereignty of Charles had ever been mildly exercised.

The condition of contending parties in England had

1643 Mar.

1 Hening, i. 237, 238.

2 Chalmers, 124.

3 Hazard, i. 533—535.

4 Winthrop, II. 159, 160, and the note of Savage.

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