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[230] place, it was done by the authority of the colonial
Chap VI.}
assembly.1 The war between England and Holland did not wholly interrupt the intercourse of the Dutch with the English colonies; and if, after the treaty of peace, the trade was considered contraband, the English restrictions were entirely disregarded.2 A remonstrance, addressed to Cromwell, demanded an
unlimited liberty; and we may suppose that it was not refused; for, some months before Cromwell's death,
1658. Mar.
the Virginians invited the Dutch and all foreigners to trade with them, on payment of no higher duty than that which was levied on such English vessels as were bound for a foreign port.3 Proposals of peace and commerce between New Netherlands and Virginia were discussed without scruple by the respective colonial governments;4 and at last a special statute of
Virginia extended to every Christian nation, in amity with England, a promise of liberty to trade and equal justice.5 At the restoration, Virginia enjoyed freedom of commerce with the whole world.

Religious liberty advanced under the influence of independent domestic legislation. No churches had been erected except in the heart of the colony6 and there were so few ministers, that a bounty was offered

1 Hening, i. 382, 383.

2 Thurloe, v. 80. Hazard, i. 599—602.

3 Hening, i. 469.

4 The statements in this paragraph derive ample confirmation from the very copious Dutch Records at Albany, IV. 91; IX. 57—59; IV. 96. 122. 165. 198; particularly IV. 211, where the rumor of an intended prohibition of Dutch trade in Virginia is alluded to in a letter from the W. I. Co. to Stuyvesant. That was in 1656, precisely at the time referred to in the rambling complaint in Hazard, i. 600, and still more in the very rare little volume by L. G. ‘Public Good without Private Interest, or a Compendious Remonstrance of the Present Sad State and Condition of the English Colonie in Virginea; 1657;’ p. 13, 14. The prohibition alluded to is not in the Navigation Act of St. John, nor did any such go into effect. See Albany Records, IV. 236. The very rare tract of L. G., I obtained through the kindness of John Brown, of Providence.

5 Smith, 27. Hening, i. 450.

6 Norwood, in Churchill, VI. 186.

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