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[23] But where were the honest tradesmen and in-
Chap. I.} 1540.
dustrious mechanics to be found, who would repair to this New World? The commission gave Cartier full authority to ransack the prisons; to rescue the unfortunate and the criminal; and to make up the complement of his men from their number. Thieves or homicides, the spendthrift or the fraudulent bankrupt, the debtors to justice or its victims, prisoners rightfully or wrongfully detained, excepting only those arrested for treason or counterfeiting money,—these were the people by whom the colony was, in part, to be established.1

The division of authority between Cartier and Ro-

berval of itself defeated the enterprise.2 Roberval was ambitious of power; and Cartier desired the exclusive honor of discovery. .They neither embarked in company, nor acted in concert. Cartier sailed3 from St.
Mar 23.
Malo the next spring after the date of his commission; he arrived at the scene of his former adventures, ascended the St. Lawrence, and, near the site of Quebec, built a fort for the security of his party;4 but no considerable advances in geographical knowledge appear to have been made. The winter passed in sullenness and gloom. In June of the following year, he and his
ships stole away and returned to France, just as Roberval arrived with a considerable reinforcement. Unsustained by Cartier, Roberval accomplished no more than a verification of previous discoveries. Remaining about

1 Hazard, i. 19—21.

2 Hakluyt, III. 286—297.

3 Holmes, in Annals, i. 70, 71, places the departure of Cartier May 23, 1540. He follows, undoubtedly, the date in Hak. III. 286; which is, however, a misprint, or an error. For, first the patent of Cartier was not issued till October, 1540; next, the annalist can find no occupation for Cartier in Canada for one whole year; and, further, it is undisputed, that Roberval did not sail till April, 1542; and it is expressly said in the account of Roberval's voyage, Hak. III. 295, that ‘Jaques Cartier and his company’ were ‘sent with five sayles the yeere before.’ Belknap makes a similar mistake, i. 178.

4 Chalmers, 82, places this event in 1545, without reason.

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