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[79] of Archangel. This was ‘the discovery of Russia,’
Chap. III.} 1554
and the commencement of maritime commerce with that empire. A Spanish writer calls the result of the voyage ‘a discovery of new Indies.’1 The Russian nation, one of the oldest and least mixed in Europe now awakening from a long lethargy, emerged into political distinction. We have seen that, about eleven years from this time, the first town in the United States' territory was permanently built. So rapid are the changes on the theatre of nations! One of the leading powers of the age, but about two and a half centuries ago became known to Western Europe; another had not then one white man within its limits.

The principle of joint stock companies, so favorable to every enterprise of uncertain result, by dividing the risks, and by nourishing a spirit of emulous zeal in behalf of an inviting scheme, was applied to the purposes of navigation; and a company of merchant adventurers

was incorporated for the discovery of unknown lands.2

For even the intolerance of Queen Mary could not

1553 to 1558
check the passion for maritime adventure. The sea was becoming the element on which English valor was to display its greatest boldness; English sailors neither feared the sultry heats and consuming fevers of the tropics, nor the intense severity of northern cold. The trade to Russia, now that the port of Archangel had been discovered, gradually increased and became very lucrative; and a regular and as yet an innocent
commerce was carried on with Africa.3 The marriage
1554 July 25
of Mary with the king of Spain tended to excite the emulation which it was designed to check. The enthusiasm

1 Hakluyt, i. 251—284. Turner's England, III. 298—301. Purchas, III. 462, 463.

2 Hakluyt, i. 298—304.

3 The Viage to Guinea in 1553, in Eden and Willes, fol. 336, 337—353.

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