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[172] traffic. A series of papal bulls had indeed secured to
Chap. V.}
the Portuguese the exclusive commerce with Western Africa; but the slave-trade between Africa and America was, I believe, never expressly sanctioned by the see of Rome. The spirit of the Roman church was against it. Even Leo X., though his voluptuous life, making of his pontificate a continued carnival, might have deadened the sentiments of humanity and justice, declared,1 that ‘not the Christian religion only, but nature herself, cries out against the state of slavery.’ And Paul III., in two separate briefs,2 imprecated a
1537. June 10.
curse on the Europeans who should enslave Indians, or any other class of men. It even became usual for Spanish vessels, when they sailed on a voyage of discovery, to be attended by a priest, whose benevolent duty it was, to prevent the kidnapping of the aborigines.3 The legislation of independent America has been emphatic4 in denouncing the hasty avarice which entailed the anomaly of negro slavery in the midst of liberty. Ximenes, the gifted coadjutor of Ferdinand and Isabella, the stern grand inquisitor, the austere but ambitious Franciscan, saw in advance the danger which it required centuries to reveal, and refused to sanction the introduction of negroes into Hispaniola; believing5 that the favorable climate would increase their numbers, and infallibly lead them to a successful revolt. A severe retribution has manifested his sagacity: Hayti, the first spot in America that received

1 Clarkson's History of the Abolition of the Slave-Trade, i. 35, American edition. Clarkson, i. 33, 34, says that Charles V. lived to repent his permission of slavery, and to order emancipation. The first is probable; yet Herrera, d. II. l. II. c. XX., denounces not slavery, but the monopoly of the slave-trade.

2 See the brief, in Remesal, Hist. de Chiappa, l. III. c. XVI. XVII.

3 T. Southey's West Indies, i. 126.

4 Walsh's Appeal, 306—342. Belknap's Correspondence with Tucker, i. Mass. Hist. Coll. IV. 190—211.

5 Irving, III. 374, 375.

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