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[212] such as nature provides in her wilds; no education but
Chap. XIV.}
such as parents in the desert could give their offspring.1 The paths were bridleways rather than roads; and the highway surveyors aimed at nothing more than to keep them clear of logs and fallen trees.2 I doubt if there existed what we should call a bridge in the whole Dominion, though it was intended to build some.3 Visits were made in boats, or on horseback through the forests; and the Virginian, travelling with his pouch of tobacco for currency, swam the rivers, where there was neither ferry nor ford. Almost every planter was his own mechanic. The houses, for the most part of but one story, and made of wood, often of logs, the windows closed by convenient shutters for want of glass,4 were sprinkled at great distances on both sides of the Chesapeake, from the Potomac to the line of Carolina. There was hardly such a sight as a cluster of three dwellings. Jamestown was but a place of a statehouse, one church, and eighteen houses,5 occupied by about a dozen families. Till very recently, the legislature had assembled in the hall of an alehouse.6 Virginia had neither towns nor lawyers.7 A few of the wealthier planters lived in braver state at their large plantations, and, surrounded by indented servants and slaves, produced a new form of society, that has sometimes been likened to the manners of the patriarchs, and sometimes to the baronial pride of feudalism. The inventory of Sir William Berkeley gave him seventy horses, as well as large flocks of sheep.8 ‘Almost ’

1 Berkeley, in Chalmers

2 Hening, ii. 103.

3 Ibid. Burk, ii. App. XXXIII.

4 Hammond's Lear and Rachel.

5 Mass. Hist. Coll. XI. 53.

6 Hening, ii. 204.

7 Burk, ii. 159.

8 Document in Burk, ii. 263.

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