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[378] inward affection, made, not for lust, but for love
Chap XVI.}
In studying the understanding, Locke begins with the sources of knowledge; Penn with an inventory of our intellectual treasures. Locke deduces government from Noah and Adam, rests it upon contract, and announces its end to be the security of property; Penn, far from going back to Adam, or even to Noah, declares that ‘there must be a people before a government,’1 and, deducing the right to institute government from man's moral nature, seeks its fundamental rules in the immutable dictates ‘of universal reason,’ its end in freedom and happiness. The system of Locke lends itself to contending factions of the most opposite interests and purposes; the doctrine of Fox and Penn, being but the common creed of humanity, forbids division, and insures the highest moral unity. To Locke, happiness is pleasure;2 things are good and evil only in reference to pleasure and pain;3 and to ‘inquire after the highest good is as absurd as to dispute whether the best relish be in apples, plums, or nuts;’4 Penn esteemed happiness to lie in the subjection of the baser instincts to the instinct of Deity in the breast, good and evil to be eternally and always as unlike as truth and falsehood, and the inquiry after the highest good to involve the purpose of existence. Locke says plainly, that, but for rewards and punishments beyond the grave, ‘it is certainly right to eat and drink, and enjoy what we delight in;’5 Penn, like Plato and Fenelon, maintained the doctrine so terrible to despots, that God is to be loved for his own sake, and virtue to be practised for its intrinsic loveliness. Locke derives the idea of infinity

1 Ar Union, in Penn. S. Laws.

2 Essay on the Human Understanding, b. II. XXI. 42.

3 Essay on the Human Understanding, II. XX. 2.

4 Ibid. II. XXI. 55

5 Ibid.

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