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[380] not for new enfranchisements, when Harrington, and
Chap. XVI.}
Shaftesbury, and Locke, thought government should rest on property,—Penn did not despair of humanity, and, though all history and experience1 denied the sovereignty of the people, dared to cherish the noble idea of man's capacity for self-government. Conscious that there was no room for its exercise in England, the pure enthusiast, like Calvin and Descartes, a voluntary exile, was come to the banks of the Delaware to institute ‘the Holy experiment.’

The news spread rapidly, that the Quaker king was

1682 Oct. 27, 28.
at Newcastle; and,2 on the day after his landing, in presence of a crowd of Swedes, and Dutch, and English, who had gathered round the court-house, his deeds of feoffment were produced; the duke of York's agent surrendered the territory by the solemn delivery of earth and water, and Penn, invested with supreme and undefined power in Delaware, addressed the assembled multitude on government, recommended sobriety and peace, and pledged himself to grant liberty of conscience and civil freedom.

From Newcastle, Penn ascended the Delaware to Chester, where he was hospitably received by the honest, kind-hearted emigrants who had preceded him from the north of England; the little village of herdsmen and farmers, with their plain manners, gentle dispositions, and tranquil passions, seemed a harbinger of a golden age.

From Chester, tradition describes the journey of Penn to have been continued with a few friends in an

1 See Hume's account of the meeting of the Long Parliament.

2 Proud, i. 205. The date in Chalmers and Proud, of Penn's landing, is October 24. It is taken from Penn's letter. But the copyist may have mistaken a figure; or Penn may have alluded to his entrance within the capes. See the Newcastle Records, in Watson, 16.

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