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[40] James II., had given up office, rather than profess Ro-
Chap. XIX.}
manism, the less distinguished Ranelagh, and Henry, the brother of Algernon Sidney, of old the correspondent of the prince of Orange, as well as the warm friend of William Penn, interceded for the restoration of the proprietary of Pennsylvania. ‘He is my old acquaintance,’ answered William; ‘he may follow his business as freely as ever; I have nothing to say against him.’ Appearing before the king in council,
1694 Aug. 20.
his innocence was established; and, in August, 1694, the patent for his restoration passed the seals.

The pressure of poverty delayed the return of the

1695. March 26.
proprietary to the banks of the Delaware; and Markham was invested with the executive power. The members of the assembly, which he convened, anxious
Sept. 9.
for political liberties, which the recent changes had threatened to efface, found a remedy within themselves, and, assuming the power of fundamental legislation, framed a democratic constitution. They would have ‘their privileges granted before they would give anie monie.’ Doubtful of the extent of his authority, Markham dissolved the assembly.

The legislature of the next year persevered, and,

by its own authority, subject only to the assent of the
proprietary, established a purely democratic government. The governor was but chairman of the council The council, the assembly, each was chosen by the people. The time of election, the time of assembling, the period of office, were placed beyond the power of the executive. The judiciary depended on the legislature. The people constituted themselves the fountain of honor and of power. When the assembly
Proud, App. IV.
next came together, Markham could say to them,
1697. May 12.
‘You are met, not by virtue of any writ of mine, ’

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