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Water, ever a favorite highway, is especially the

Chap XXII}
highway of uncivilized man: to those who have no axes the thick jungle is impervious; emigration by water suits the genius of savage life; canoes are older than wagons, and ships than chariots; a gulf, a strait, the sea intervening between islands, divide less than the matted forest. Even civilized man emigrates by sea and by rivers, and has ascended two thousand miles above the mouth of the Missouri, while interior tracts in New York and Ohio are still a wilderness. To the uncivilized man, no path is free but the sea, the lake, and the river.

The American and the Mongolian races of men, on the two sides of the Pacific, have a near resemblance. Both are alike strongly and definitely marked by the more capacious palatine fossa, of which the dimensions are so much larger, that a careful observer could, out of a heap of skulls, readily separate the Mongolian and American from the Caucasian, but could not distinguish them from each other. Both have the orbit of the eye quadrangular, rather than oval; both, especially the American, have comparatively a narrowness of the forehead; the facial angle in both, but especially in the American, is comparatively small; in both, the bones of the nose are flatter and broader than in the Caucasian,—and in so equal a degree, and with apertures so similar, that, on indiscriminate selections of specimens from the two, an observer could not, from this feature, discriminate which of them belonged to the old continent; both, but especially the Americans, are characterized by a prominence of the jaws. The elongated occiput is common to the American and the Asiatic; and there is to each very nearly the same ob-!iquity of the face. Between the Mongolian of Southern

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