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[347] in 1742, a few families of resident herdsmen gained
Chap. XXIII.}
permission of the natives to pasture their beeves on the fertile fields above Blanche River.

That Louisiana extended to the head-spring of the Alleghany, and included the Laurel Ridge, the Great Meadows, and every brook that flowed to the Ohio, was, on the eve of the treaty of Utrecht, expressly asserted in the royal grant of the commerce of the

1712 Sept.
province. Weary of fruitless efforts, Louis XIV. had assigned the exclusive trade of the unbounded territory to Anthony Crozat, a French merchant, who had
Joutel's editor, 380.
‘prospered in opulence to the astonishment of all the editor, world.’ La Motte Cadillac, now the royal governor of Louisiana, became his partner; and the merchant proprietary and the founder of Detroit sought fortune by discovering mines and encroaching on the colonial monopolies of Spain.

The latter attempt met with no success whatever. Hardly had the officers of the new administration land-

1713 May.
ed at Dauphine Island, when a vessel was sent to Vera Cruz; but it was not allowed to dispose of its cargo. The deep colonial bigotry of Spain was strengthened by the political jealousy which soon disturbed the relations between the governments at Madrid and Paris,—
Ensayo Cronologico, para la Hist. de la Florida, 327, &c.
while the French occupation of Louisiana was itself esteemed an encroachment on Spanish territory. Every Spanish harbor in the Gulf of Mexico was closed against the vessels of Crozat.

It was next attempted to institute commercial relations by land. Had they been favored, they could not then have succeeded. But when St. Denys, after renewing intercourse with the Natchitoches, again ascended the Red River, and found his way from one Spanish post to another, till he reached a fortress in

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