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[291] was recalled, and added one more to the military of-
chap. XIII.} 1757.
ficers, who advised the magisterial exercise of British authority, and voted in parliament to sustain it by fire and sword.

In 1746 the Duke of Bedford, then at the head of the admiralty, after considering ‘the conduct and principles’ of the Northern colonies, had declared officially that it would be imprudent ‘to send twenty thousand colonists to plunder the Canadians and conquer their country, on account of the independence it might create in those provinces, when they should see within themselves so great an army possessed of so great a country by right of conquest.’ He had, therefore, advised ‘to place the chief dependence on the fleet from England, and to look on the Americans as useful only when joined with others.’ But Pitt, rejecting the coercive policy of his predecessors, their instructions for a common fund, and their menaces of taxation .by parliament, invited the New England colonies, and New York, and New Jersey, each without limit, to raise as many men as possible, believing them ‘well able to furnish at least twenty thousand,’ for the expedition against Montreal and Quebec, while Pennsylvania and the southern colonies were to aid in conquering the West. He assumed that England should provide arms, ammunition and tents; he ‘expected and required’ nothing of the colonists, but ‘the levying, clothing, and pay of the men;’ and for these expenses he promised that the king should ‘strongly recommend to parliament to grant a proper compensation.’ Moreover, in December, 1757, he obtained the king's order that every provincial officer of no higher rank than

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