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‘ [230] of war, in the case of troops raised for their pro-
chap. IX.} 1756.
tection by the authority of parliament,—made the first time by an assembly, many of whom plead what they call conscience for not joining in the military operations to resist the enemy,—should not be allowed to stand as law.’ This act, therefore, was repealed by the king in council; and the rule was established1 without limitation, that troops might be kept up in the colonies and quartered on them at pleasure, without the consent of their American parliaments.

Thus, after sixty years of advice from the Board of Trade, a permanent army was established in America. Nothing seemed wanting but an act of parliament for an American revenue. The obstinacy of Pennsylvania was pleaded as requiring it.2 On the questions affecting that province, the Board of Trade listened to Charles Yorke on the side of prerogative, while Charles Pratt spoke for colonial liberty; and after a long hearing, Halifax and Soame Jenyns, and Bedford's dependent, Richard Rigby, and Talbot joined in advising an immediate act of the British legislature to overrule the charter of the colony. But the ministry was rent by factions, and their fluctuating tenure of office made it difficult to mature novel or daring measures of legislation. There existed no central will, that could conquer Canada, or subvert the liberties of America.

A majority of the Treasury Board, as well as the Board of Trade, favored American taxation by act of parliament; none scrupled as to the power; but ‘the ’

1 Order in Council, 7 July, 1756.

2 Garth's Report of the Debate in the House of Commons, Feb. 3, 1766.

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