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[265] should never, directly or indirectly, publicly or pri-
chap. XII.} 1765. May.
vately, have any thing to do with his business; he consented to dismiss Mackenzie from the administration of the affairs of Scotland, but not from the office of Privy Seal. Grenville was obstinate. ‘But,’ interposed the king, ‘he has my promise to continue in that employment for life; I passed to him my royal word,’ and, falling into great agitation, he went so far as to say, ‘I should disgrace myself, if I dismissed him.’ ‘In that case, sir,’ replied Grenville, ‘we must decline coming in.’ ‘No,’ said the king, ‘I have desired you to stay in my service; I see, I must yield; I do it for the good of my people. But if you force me to violate my royal word, you are responsible for it, not I. ’ Thus the king gave way; but he was so deeply moved, that his physicians were ordered to attend him; his manner became gloomy and discontented; on the following Sunday, the usual drawing-room was omitted; and his mind was still so convulsed, that he did not even choose to take the sacrament.

This is the moment when the power of the British Oligarchy, under the revolution of 1688, was at its culminating point. The ministry esteemed itself, and, through itself, the power of parliament, more firmly established than ever. It had subdued the king, and imposed a system of taxes on America for the benefit of the British exchequer. The colonists could not export the chief products of their industry; neither sugar, nor tobacco, nor cotton, nor indigo, nor ginger, nor fustic, nor other dyeing woods; nor molasses, nor rice, with some exceptions; nor beaver, nor peltry, nor copper ore, nor pitch, nor

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