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That the country, which was the home of the bea-

chap. XII.} 1765. May.
ver, might not manufacture its own hats, no man inthe plantations could be a hatter, or a journeyman at that trade, unless he had served an apprenticeship of seven years. No hatter might employ a negro, or more than two apprentices. No American hat might be sent from one plantation to another, or be loaded upon any horse, cart, or carriage for conveyance.

America abounded in iron ores of the best quality, as well as in wood and coal; slitting mills, steel furnaces, and plating forges, to work with a tilt hammer, were prohibited in the colonies as ‘nuisances.’

While free labor was debarred of its natural rights, the slave trade was encouraged with unrelenting eagerness; and in the year that had just expired, from Liverpool alone, seventy-nine ships had borne from Africa to the West Indies and the continent more than fifteen thousand three hundred negroes, two-thirds as many as the first colonists of Massachusetts.

And now taxation, direct and indirect, was added to colonial restrictions; and henceforward both were to go together. A duty was to be collected on foreign sugar, molasses, indigo, coffee, Madeira wine, imported directly into any of the plantations in America; also a duty on Portugal and Spanish wines, on Eastern silks, on Eastern calicoes, on foreign linen cloth, on French lawn, though imported directly from Great Britain; on British colonial coffee shipped from one

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