are more emphatically subjects of Great Britain, than those within the realm; and the British legislature have, in every instance, exercised their right of legislation over them without any dispute or question, till the fourteenth of January last.
Our colonies emigrated under the sanction of the crown and parliament, upon the terms of being subjects of England.
They were modelled gradually into their present forms, by charters, grants, and statutes; but they were never separated from the mother country, or so emancipated as to become their own masters.
The very idea of a colony implies subordination and dependence, to render allegiance for protection.
If they are not subjects, they ought to pay duties as aliens.1 The charter colonies had among their directors members of the privy council and of both houses of parliament, and were under the authority of the privy council.
In the nineteenth year of James I. a doubt was thrown out in the House of Commons, whether parliament had any thing to do with America, and the doubt was immediately answered by Coke.2 The rights of Maryland were, by charter, coextensive with those of any Bishop of Durham in that county palatine, and the statute book shows that Durham was taxed by parliament before it was represented.
The commonwealth parliament passed a resolution or act, and it is a question whether it is not in force now, to declare and establish the authority of England over its colonies.
The charter of Pennsylvania, who have preposterously taken the lead,
was present to hear this,
is stamped with every badge of subordination;3 and a