hatred, quickened by religious bigotry; greediness
after confiscated estates, and the pride of power in the Protestant interest.
Modern History has no parallel1
for the sufferings of the Irish nation from 1641 to 1660.
At the restoration of Charles II.
a declaration of settlement confirmed even the escheats of land, decreed by the republican party for the loyalty of their owners to the crown.
It is the opinion of an English historian,2
that ‘upon the whole result the Irish Catholics
, having previously held about two-thirds of the kingdom, lost more than one-half of their possessions by forfeitures on account of their rebellion. * * * They were diminished also by much more than one-third through the calamities of that period.’
Even the favor of James II.
wrought the Catholic Irish
nothing but evil, for they shared his defeat; and after their vain attempt to make of Ireland
his independent place of refuge, and a gallant resistance, extending through a war of three years, the Irish at Limerick
capitulated to the new dynasty, obtaining the royal promise of security of worship to the Roman Catholics
, and the continued possession of their estates, free from all outlawries or forfeitures.
Of these articles, the first was totally disregarded; the second was evaded.
New forfeitures followed to the extent of more than a million of acres; and at the close of the seventeenth century, the native Irish
, with the Anglo-Irish Catholics
, possessed not more than a seventh of their own island.
The maxims on which the government of Ireland