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[66] was administered by Protestant England after the re-
chap. IV.} 1763.
volution of 1688, brought about the relations by which that country and our own reciprocally affected each other's destiny: Ireland assisting to people America, and America to redeem Ireland.

The inhabitants of Ireland were four parts1 in five, certainly more than two parts in three,2 Roman Catholics. Religion established three separate nationalities; the Anglican Churchmen, constituting nearly a tenth of the population; the Presbyterians, chiefly Scotch-Irish; and the Catholic population, which was a mixture of the old Celtic race, the untraceable remains of the few Danish settlers, and the Normans and first colonies of the English.

In settling the government, England intrusted it exclusively to those of ‘the English colony,’ who were members of its own church; so that the little minority ruled the island. To facilitate this, new boroughs were created; and wretched tenants, where not disfranchised, were so coerced in their votes at elections, that two-thirds of the Irish House of Commons were the nominees of the large Protestant proprietors of the land.

In addition to this, an act of the English parliament rehearsed the dangers to be apprehended from the presence of popish recusants in the Irish parliament, and 3

1 Boulter to the Archbishop of Canterbury, i. 210: ‘There are, probably, in this kingdom five Papists to at least one Protestant.’ Durand to Clloiseul, 30 July, 1767. Angleterre T. 474, ‘la proportion est au moins de quatre contre un.’ So Arthur Young: ‘500,000 Protestants, two million Catholics.’ Tour in Ireland, II. 33.

2 Burke says, more than two to one.

3 ‘The people, saving a few British planters here and there, which were not a tenth part of the remnant, obstinate recusants.’ Bedell to Laud, in Burnet's Bedell. The civil wars changed the proportion.

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