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[158] and a half pounds of tea consumed annually in the
chap. IX.} 1763. Oct.
colonies, not more than one tenth part was sent from England.1 Grenville held that the contraband was all stolen from the commerce and part of it from the manufactures of Great Britain, against the fundamental principles of colonization, and the express provisions of the law. Custom had established in the American ports a compromise between the American claim to as free trade as the English, and the British acts of restriction. Grenville did what none of his predecessors had done: he read the Statute Book of Great Britain; and the integrity of his mind revolted at this connivance. It pleased his austere vanity to be the first and only minister to insist on enforcing the laws,2 which usage and corruption3 had invalidated; and this brought him in conflict with the spirit which

1 Campbell, 93.

2 Hutchinson to Richard Jackson, Grenville's Secretary in the Exchequer, Sept. 1763: β€˜The real cause of the illicit trade in this province has been the indulgence of the officers of the customs; and we are told that the cause of this indulgence has been, that they are quartered upon for more than their legal fees, and that without bribery and corruption they must starve. If the venality of the present age will not admit of a reform in this respect, perhaps the provision now made may be the next best expedient.’

3 β€˜ I, Sampson Toovey, clerk to James Cockle, Esq., Collector of His Majesty's Customs for the port of Salem, do declare on oath, that ever since I have been in the office, it hath been customary for said Cockle to receive of the masters of vessels entering from Lisbon, casks of wine, boxes of fruit, &c., which was a gratuity for suffering their vessels to be entered with salt or ballast only, and passing over unnoticed such cargoes of wine, fruit, &c., which are prohibited to be imported into his majesty's plantations. Part of which wine, fruit, &c., he the said James Cockle used to share with Governor Bernard. And I further declare that I used to be the negotiator of this business, and receive the wine, fruit, &c., and dispose of them agreeable to Mr. Cockle's orders. Witness my hand, Sampson Toovey.

Essex Co. Salem, Sept. 27, 1764. Then Mr. Francis Toovey made oath to the truth of the above, before Benjamin Pickman, J. Peace.

Boston Gazette, 12 June, 1769. No. 741, 3, 2. Same in the London Daily Advertiser and Morning Chronicle of July 22, 1769, and in Boston Gazette of 9 Oct., 1796, 757. 2. 1. Compare what Lieut.-Governor Sharpe, of Maryland, and Temple, the Surveyor-General of the Customs say of Bernard's integrity in revenue affairs.


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