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When, on the nineteenth of August, England

Chap. XXXV.} 1768. Aug.
heard that Massachusetts had, by a vast majority of its representatives, refused to rescind the resolutions of the preceding winter, Lord Mansfield was of the opinion that all the members of the late Legislative Assembly at Boston should be sent for, to give an account of their conduct, and that all the rigors of the law should be exercised against those who should persist in refusing to submit to Parliament.1 ‘Where rebellion begins,’ said he, ‘the laws cease, and they can invoke none in their favor.’2

To the ambassador of Spain, he expressed the

opinion that the affair of the Colonies was the gravest and most momentous that England had had since 1688, and saw in America the beginning of a long and even infinite series of revolutions. ‘The Americans,’ he insisted, ‘must first be compelled to submit to the authority of Parliament; it is only after having reduced them to the most entire obedience that an inquiry can be made into their real or pretended grievances.’3 The subject interested every court in Europe, was watched in Madrid, and was the general theme of conversation in Paris, where Fuentes, the Spanish Minister, expressed the hope that ‘the English might master their Colonies, lest the Spanish Colonies also should catch the flame.’4

‘I dread the event,’ said Camden; ‘because the Colonies are more sober and consequently more determined in their present opposition than they were upon the Stamp Act.’ ‘What is to be done?’ asked

1 Frances to Choiseul, 29 Sept. 1768.

2 Frances to Choiseul, 16 Sept. 1768.

3 Frances to Choiseul, 23 Sept. 1768.

4 Walpole's George III., III. 253.

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