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[356] His eye did not rest on Colonial liberty or a people
Chap. XLIV.} 1770. March
struggling towards more intelligence and happiness; the Crown was to him the emblem of all rightful power. He had that worst quality of evil, that he, as it were, adored himself; and regarded opposition to his designs as an offence against integrity and patriotism. He thought no exertions too great to crush the spirit of revolution, and no sufferings or punishment too cruel or too severe for those whom he esteemed as rebels.

The chaotic state of parties in England at this period of transition from their ancient forms, favored the King's purposes. The liberal branch of the aristocracy had accomplished the duty it had undertaken; and had not yet discovered the service on which humanity would employ it next. After the revolution of 1688, the defeated cause, whose followers clung to the traditions of the Middle Age, had its strongest support in the inhabitants of the rural districts. Through them only could the tory, who retained the implicit reverence for Monarchy and for the Church, hope to succeed against the friends of the new political system; and the more frequent and the more complete the opportunity of the appeal, the greater was his prospect of a victory. The Tory faction, therefore, in its warfare against actual progress, addressed itself to the sympathies of the common people. It would have annual Parliaments; it would have democratic supremacy; it led the van of patriotism, and its speeches even savored of republicanism. The party of the past sought to win a triumph over those in power, by making an alliance with the party of the future. In this manner it came about that the Whigs for half a century stood

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