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‘ [361] sending the soldiers to Castle William; what Minis-
Chap. XLIV.} 1770. April.
ter will dare to send them back to Boston?’ ‘The very idea of a military establishment in America,’ cried William Burke, ‘is wrong.’ In a different spirit, Lord Barrington proposed a change in the too democratical Charter of Massachusetts.1

The American question became more and more complicated with the history and the hopes of freedom in England. The country was suffering from the excess of aristocracy in its constitution; Burke, writing with the authority of the great whig party, prescribed more aristocracy as the cure of the evil. But English liberty was like the lofty forest tree which begins to decay at its top; it needed a renewal of the soil round its root. Chat-

ham saw the futility of the plan; and unable to obtain from Rockingham the acceptance of his far reaching views, he stepped forward himself as the champion of the people. ‘I pledge myself to their cause,’ said he in the House of Lords on the first of May, ‘for I know it is the cause of truth and justice.’ ‘I trust the people of this country,’ said Camden, ‘will renew their claims to true and free and equal representation as their inherent and unalienable right.’ Shelburne insisted that Lord North, for his agency with regard to the Middlesex elections, deserved impeachment. Stanhope pledged himself to the support of liberty, if necessary, at the cost of his life.

On the ninth of May, Edmund Burke,2 acting in thorough conjunction with Grenville, brought the

1 Report of the Debate in the Boston Gazette of 25 June, 1770; 794, 4, 2.

2 Cavendish Debates, II. 14; Boston Gazette, 9 July, 1770; 796, 2, 2.

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