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[448] persisted in their first choice. In consequence Mon-
Chap. XLIX.} 1773. Jan.
tagu prorogued them, and did it in so illegal a manner, that as a remedy, he dissolved them by a proclamation, and immediately issued writs for choosing a new House;1 thus carrying the subject home to the thoughts of every voter in the Province.

This controversy was local; the answers of the Legislature of Massachusetts to its Governor's challenge would be of general importance. That of the Council, drafted by Bowdoin, clearly traced the existing discontents to the Acts of Parliament, subjecting the Colonies to taxes without their consent. The removal of this original cause, would remove its effects. Supreme or unlimited authority can with fitness belong only to the Sovereign of the universe; from the nature and end of government, the supreme authority of every government is limited; and from the laws of England, its Constitution and the Provincial Charter, it was shown that the limits of that authority did not include the levying of taxes within the Province. Thus the Council conceded nothing, and at the same time avoided a conflict with the opinions of Chatham, Camden and Shelburne.

The House, in their reply, which Samuel Adams, familiar with the opinions of lawyers, and specially aided by the sound legal knowledge of Hawley, had constructed with his utmost skill at sarcasm, and which, after two days debate,2 was unanimously adopted and carried up by its author, chose a different

1 Lord Charles Montagu to the Secretary of State, 21 January, 1773; Charles Garth to Committee of South Carolina, 25 Feb. 1773.

2 From an original Ms. Rough record of the doings of the House, in my possession.

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