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Chapter 26:

Coalition of the King and the Great Commoner against the aristocracy—the Administration of Chatham.

July—October, 1766.

the obnoxious clauses of the Billeting Act had
Chap. XXVI.} 1766. July.
been renewed inadvertently by Ministers, who had designed to adopt a system of lenity. They proposed to remove Bernard from Massachusetts, in favor of Hutchinson,1 whom Conway had been duped into believing a friend to colonial liberty. Reviving against Spain the claim for the ransom of the Manillas, they suggested in lieu of it a cession of the island of New Orleans; though the Spanish ambassador took fire at the thought, saying, ‘New Orleans is the key to Mexico.’2 With equally vain endeavors, they were forming new and milder instructions for the government of Canada,3 in the hope to combine respect for the municipal customs and religion of its old inhabitants, with the safeguards of the English criminal law.4 The conquest of New France

1 Thos. Hutchinson, jr., to Thos. Hutchinson, July, 1766.

2 Durand to Choiseul, 27 June, 1766.

3 Hardwicke's Memorial.

4 Paper in the Lansdowne House Manuscripts endorsed, ‘Relative to the present State of Quebec, 17 May, 1767.’

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