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Chapter 52:

The capture of Montreal.

August—November, 1775.

when Carleton heard of the surrender of Ticon-
Chap. LII.} 1775.
deroga to Allen and Arnold, he resolved to attempt its recovery. The continental congress had, on the first of June, explicitly disclaimed the purpose of invading Canada; and a French version of their resolution was very widely distributed among its inhabitants. But on the ninth of that month the governor of the province proclaimed the American borderers to be a rebellious band of traitors, established martial law, and summoned the French peasantry to serve under the old colonial nobility, while the converted Indian tribes and the savages of the northwest were instigated to take up the hatchet against New York and New England. These movements affected the intentions of congress, and made the occupation of Canada an act of self-defence.

The French nobility, of whom many under the Quebec act were received into the council or appointed

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