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In conducting the bargain, the landgrave in-

Chap. LVII.}
sisted on adhering to the beaten track of former conventions; and this predilection for precedents was not confined to mere formalities, but in every essential point was attended with an anxiety to collect and accumulate in the new treaty every favorable stipulation that had separately found its way into any of the old ones. The levy money appeared to be the same that was agreed upon with Brunswick; but as it was to be paid for the officers as well as for the men, the Hessian contract had an advantage of twenty per cent.

The master stroke of Schlieffen was the settlement of the subsidy. In no former convention had that condition extended over a less period than four years: the British minister objected to a demand for six, believing that one campaign would terminate the war; the Hessian, therefore, with seeming moderation, accepted a double subsidy, to be paid from the signature of the treaty to its expiration. Precedents were also found for stipulating that the subsidy should be paid not as by the treaty with Brunswick in German crowns, but in crowns banco, which made a further considerable gain to the landgrave; and as the engagement actually continued in force for about ten years, it proved very far more onerous than any which England had ever before negotiated, affording a clear net profit to the landgrave on this item alone of five millions of our dollars.

The taxes paid by the Hessians were sufficient to defray the pay rolls and all the expenses of the Hessian army: these taxes it had not been the custom to reduce; but on the present occasion, the landgrave, to give his faithful subjects proof of his paternal inclinations,

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Braunschweig (Lower Saxony, Germany) (2)

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