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[423] was necessary for Canada, and they were resolved to
Chap. LXVII.} 1776. Apr.
maintain that number on the St. Lawrence, leaving Washington very much to his own devices and the effect of solicitations, addressed to the colonies nearest him, at a time when it was the grand plan of the English to take possession of Hudson river.

For Canada an able general was wanted not less than an army. Schuyler having refused the service, and Lee having been transferred to the South, Putnam stood next in rank; but Washington, who judged him leniently as an executive officer, saw his utter incompetency to a distant, separate command. Thomas of Massachusetts, a man of less experience but superior ability and culture, was, therefore, raised to the rank of major general and ordered to Quebec. To complete the misery of the army, with whichhe was to hold Canada, the small pox raged among the soldiers: Thomas had never been inoculated; and his journey to the camp was a journey to meet death unattended by glory.

He was closely followed by Franklin, Chase, and Charles Carroll, whom congress had commissioned to promise a guarantee of their estates to the clergy; to establish a free press; to hold out to the people of Canada the alluring prospect of a free trade with all nations; and to invite them to set up a government for themselves and join the federal union. John Carroll, the brother of Charles, a Jesuit, afterwards archbishop of Baltimore, came also, in the vain hope as an ecclesiastic of moderating the opposition of the Canadian clergy. The commissioners discovered on their arrival a general apprehension that the Americans would be driven out of the province; and that

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