Table of Contents:
ذُو ذ meaning صَاحِب [i. e. A possessor, an owner, a lord, or a master, but often better rendered having, possessing, possessed of, or endowed with], (T, S, M, Mgh, Msb, K, but omitted in the CK,) used as a prefixed noun, (S, Mgh, Msb, &c.,) is originally ذَوًا, like عَصًا, the ا being changed from و; (S;) or it is originally ذَوَّى; and if one used it as a proper name, he would say, هٰذَا ذَوَّىقَدْ جَآءَ [This is Dhawà, he has come]; (M;) [not ذَوًا, as in copies of the S; i. e.,] its third radical letter is ى, not, as J says, و; this ى being afterwards suppressed; (IB;) [so that the word becomes ذَوٌ, and then, by reason of its being prefixed to another noun, ذُو, like as أَبَوٌ, the original form of أَبٌ, becomes أَبُو:] it is declined [like أَبُو] with و and | and ىِ; (Msb;) [i. e.,] the nom. case is ذُو, accus. ذَا, and gen. ذِى: (Mgh:) the fem. is ذَاتُ; (T, S, M, Mgh, Msb, K; in a copy of the M, ذاة, and the CK, ذَاةٌ [as though it were not a prefixed noun];) and in the case of a pause, some say ذَاتْ, and others say ذَاهْ: (Lth, T: the latter usage, only, is mentioned in the S:) dual. masc., ذَوَا, (S, * M,) [accus and gen. ذَوَىْ;] fem. ذَوَاتَا, (T, M, Mgh, Msb, K,) for which ذَاتَا is allowable in poetry, but ذَوَاتَا is better, (T,) [accus, and gen. ذَوَاتَىْ:] pl., masc., ذَوُو, (T, *, S, * M, Msb, K, but omitted in the CK,) [accus, and gen. ذَوِى;] fem. ذَوَاتُ, (T, S, * M, Mgh, Msb, K,) accus. and gen. ذَوَاتِ; (S;) and أُولُو and أُولَات are like ذَوُو and ذَوَات [in signification]. (T. [See art. الو.]) In this sense it is not used otherwise than as a prefixed noun: when used to characterize an indeterminate noun, prefixed to an indeterminate noun; and when used to characterize a determinate noun, prefixed to [a noun rendered determinate by] the article ال. (S.) [Thus you say رَجُلٌ ذُو مَالٍ A man a possessor of wealth; and الرَّجُلُ ذُو المَالِ The man the possessor of wealth.] In the phrase غَيْرَ ذَاتِ الشَوْكَةِ [Not those possessed of weapons, &c.], in the Kur [viii. 7], the fem. form is used as meaning the طَائِفَة [or party]. (T.) صَارَ ذَا ذَنْبٍ [He became one having a sin, or crime, &c., attributable to him, i. e. he had a sin, &c., attributable to him,] means تَحَمَّلَ ذَنْبًا [he became chargeable with a sin, &c.]. (Msb in art. ذنب.) ― -b2- Accord. to the S, it is not prefixed to a pronoun (مُضْمَر); nor to a proper name, such as زَيْد and عَمْرو and the like: but there are several instances of its being prefixed, in its pl. form, to a pronoun; among which is the saying of a poet, “ إِِنَّمَا يَصْطَنِعُ المَعْرُوفُ فِى النَّاسِ ذَوُوهُ
” [Only they who are possessors thereof do that which is good among men]: (TA:) [this usage, however, is perhaps only allowable by poetic license: see another ex. (also here cited in the TA) in the Ham p. 442, and the remarks there appended to it:] and it is also prefixed to proper names, as is shown by the phrase, (TA,) هٰذَا ذُو زَيْدٍ (M, K, TA,) mentioned, as heard from the Arabs, by Ahmad Ibn-Ibráheem, the preceptor of Th, meaning This is Zeyd, (M, TA,) i. e., this is the owner of the name Zeyd; (M, K, TA;) and [perhaps] by the name ذُو الخَلَصَةِ, for الخلصة is [said by some to be] the name of a certain idol, and ذو is a metonymical appellation of its بَيْت; and by the proper names ذُو رُعَيْنٍ and ذُو يَزَنَ and [accord. to some] ذُو جَدْنٍ [and the like, of which several are mentioned in the S, as well as in the M &c.]. (IB, TA.) [But see a later portion of this paragraph, where, prefixed to a proper name, it is said to be redundant.] ― -b3- ذَوُو الأَرْحَام, [or, as in the Kur viii. last verse, and xxxiii. 6, أُولُو الأَرْحَامِ, pls. of ذُو الرَّحِمِ,] in the classical language, means [The possessors of relationship; i. e.] any relations: and in law, any relations that have no portion [of the inheritances termed فَرَائِض] and are not [such heirs as are designated by the appellation] عَصَبَة [q. v.: they are so called because they are relations by the women's side: see رَحِمٌ]. (KT, TA.) ― -b4- If you form a pl. from ذُومَالٍ, you say, هٰؤُلَآءِ ذَوُونَ [These are possessors of wealth]; because in this case the pl. is not a prefixed noun. (S.) Accord. to Lth, الذَّوُونَ signifies The former, or first, [of persons,] and the more, or most, distinguished. (T, TA. *) Also, (S, M,) and الأَذْوَآءُ, [which is another pl. of ذُو,] (S,) The kings (S, M) of El-Yemen, of the tribe of Kudá'ah, (S,) whose surnames commenced with ذُو, (M,) [i. e.] who were named [or rather surnamed] (S) ذُو يَزَنَ (S, M) and ذُو جَدَنٍ and ذُو نُوَاسٍ (S) and the like. (S, M.) قُرَشِىٌّ لَيْسَ مِنْ ذِى وَلَا ذُو, occurring in a trad., means A Kurashee in respect of lineage, not of the أَذْوَآء [above mentioned]. (TA.) ― -b5- [ذُو and ذَات and ذَا and ذِى are also used as prefixed nouns in various expressions here following, in several thereof as meaning Something in possession, or the like; not a possessor: or, in these instances, as is said in explanation of the first of the following phrases, and also of the phrase ذَاتُ اليَدِ (mentioned below) in Har p. 93, that which is contained is made to be as though it were the possessor (صَاحِب) of that which contains.] ― -b6- مَوَّتَ ذَابَطْنِهَا [He killed what was in her belly]. (Har ubi suprá.) And وَضَعَتِ المَرْأَةُ ذَا بَطْنِهَا, (T,) or ذَاتَ بَطْنِهَا, (TA,) The woman brought forth [her child]. (T, TA.) And نَثَرَتْ ذَا بَطْنِهَا She brought forth many children. (T in art. نثر; and Mgh there and in the present art., in the latter of which it is added that the usual phrase is نَثَرَتْ بَطْنَهَا.) And أَلْقَتِ الدَّجَاجَةُ ذَا بَطْنِهَا The hen laid her egg, or eggs: or muted. (Mgh.) And أَلْقَى الرَّجُلُ ذَا بَطْنِهِ The man ejected his excrement, or ordure. (T.) And الذِّئْبُ مَغْبُوطٌ بِذِى بَطْنِهِ The wolf is envied [for what is in his belly, or] for his distention of the belly [with food]. (TA.) ― -b7- [In like manner,] ذَاتُ اليَدِ means (tropical:) Wealth; as though it were the possessor of that which contains it: (Har ubi suprá:) [or what is in the possession of the hand:] or what one possesses, of wealth; because gained by the hand and disposed of by the hand. (Har p. 66.) You say, قَلَّتْ ذَاتُ يَدِهِ (assumed tropical:) What his hand possessed became little in quantity; (Lth, T;) or the possessions accompanying his hand; (Mgh;) app. meaning his riches. (Lth, T.) ― -b8- ذَاتُ الرِّئَةِ and ذَاتُ الجَنْبِ are Two well-known diseases. (TA. [See arts. رأى and جنب.]) ― -b9- عَلِيمٌ بِذَاتِ الصُّدُورِ, in the Kur iii. 115, means [Acquainted, or well acquainted,] with what is in the minds: (Ksh, Bd, Jel: [and the like is indicated in the Mgh:]) or with the true, or real, nature of the notions that are concealed in the minds: (IAmb, T:) or with the hidden things of the minds: or with the minds themselves. (Msb. [If the last meaning be correct, the phrase should be mentioned with others later in this paragraph.]) [And similar to this is the saying,] عَرَفَهُ مِنْ ذَاتِ نَفْسِهِ He knew it from what he conceived in his mind [without his being informed thereof; i. e. he knew it of himself]. (Lth, T.) And جَآءَ مِنْ ذِىنَفْسِهِ and مِنْ ذَاتِ نَفْسِهِ (M, K) He came [from a motive in his own mind; of himself;] of his own accord; or willingly; syn. طَيِّعًا: (M, TA:) in the copies of the K, طَبْعًا; but the former is the right explanation. (TA.) And مَا كَلَّمْتُ فُلَانًا ذَاتَ شَفَةٍ and ذَاتَ فَمٍ I spoke not to such a one a word. (AZ, T.) ― -b10- ذَاتَ اليَمِينِ and ذَاتَ الشِّمَالِ [are adverbial expressions, and] mean In the direction of the right hand and of the left: properly in the direction that has the name of the right hand [and that has the name of the left hand]. (Bd in xviii. 16.) And أَتَيْنَا ذَا يَمِينٍ means We came on the right hand. (TA.) ― -b11- ذَاتَ مَرَّةٍ and ذَا صَبَاحٍ [also, and the like,] are adverbial expressions, which may not be used otherwise than as such: (S:) you say, لَقِيتُهُ ذَاتَ مَرَّةٍ [I met him once, or once upon a time], (S,) and ذَاتَ المِرَارِ many times, (M and K in art. مر,) or sometimes, (S in that art.,) and ذَاتَ يَوْمٍ (Fr, T, S) i. e. مَرَّةً فِى يَوْمٍ [once upon a day, or one day], therefore you use the fem. form, (T,) and ذَاتَ لَيْلَةٍ [one night], (Fr, T, S,) and ذَاتَ غَدَاةٍ [one morning, or one morning between daybreak and sunrise], and ذَاتَ العِشَآءِ [once in the evening at nightfall], (S,) meaning, accord. to Th, in the hour, or time, in which is nightfall, (T,) and ذَاتَ الزُّمَيْنِ (Fr, T, S) [some time ago, or] three [or more, to ten,] seasons ago, (مُذْ ثَلَاثَةُ أَزْمَانٍ, T, [by ازمان being app. meant periods of two, or three, or six, months,]) and ذَاتَ العُوَيْمِ (Fr, T, S) [some years ago, or] three years ago (T,) or three years ago or more, to ten; (Az on the authority of AZ, TA in art. عوم;) and ذَا صَبَاحٍ [one morning], and ذَا مَسَآءٍ [one evening], (T, S,) and ذَا صَبُوحٍ [lit, at a time of drinking the morning-draught], and ذَا غَبُوقٍ [lit. at a time of drinking the evening-draught]; in these four instances without ة: and this mode of expression has been heard only in the cases of the times here mentioned: they did not say ذَاتَ شَهْرٍ nor ذَاتَ سَنَةٍ: (S:) or one may also well say ذَاتَ صَبَاحٍ, like ذَاتَ يَوْمٍ; for ذا and ذات both mean the time: and accord. to IAar, one says, أَتَيْتُهُ ذَاتَ الصَّبُوحِ and ذَاتَ الغَبُوقِ, as meaning I came to him in the morning, or in the morning between daybreak and sunrise, and in the evening, or in the evening between sunset and nightfall. (T.) ― -b12- You say also, لَقِيتُهُ ذَاتَ يَدَيْنِ, (TA,) or لَقِيتُهُ أَوَّلَ ذِى يَدَيْنِ (M) and ذَاتِ يَدَيْنِ, (AZ, M, Msb, [whence it seems to be not improbable that the phrase in the TA is imperfectly transcribed,]) meaning I met him the first thing, (M,) or first of everything. (AZ, Msb, TA.) And أَفْعَلُهُ أَوَّلَ ذِى يَدَيْنِ and ذَاتِ يَدَيْنِ [I will do it the first thing, or first of everything]. (M.) And أَمَّا أَوَّلَ ذَاتِ يَدَيْنِ فَإِِنَّنِى أَحْمَدُ ا@للّٰهَ, (AZ, M, Msb,) i. e. [Whatever be the case, the first thing, or] first of everything, I praise God. (AZ, Msb.) ― -b13- [Respecting the phrase ذَاتُ البَيْنِ, which has two contr. meanings, see art. بين. It is inadequately explained in this art. in the T and M and K, as follows.] وَأَصْلِحُوا ذَاتَ بَيْنِكُمْ, (T, M, K, *) in the Kur [viii. 1], accord. to Ahmad Ibn-Yahyà, means [And do ye rightly dispose, or arrange, or order,] the case that is between you: (T:) or, accord. to Zj, (M,) that wherein consists your union; (حَقِيقَةَ وَصْلِكُمْ, M, K;) i. e. be ye of one accord, or in unison, respecting that which God and his Apostle have commanded: (M:) or ذَاتُ البَيْنِ means the state of circumstances whereby the Muslims become of one accord, or in unison: (K:) this is the meaning in the saying, اَللّٰهُمَّ أَصْلِحْ ذَاتَ البَيْنِ [O God, do Thou rightly dispose &c.]. (M.) ― -b14- ذَاتٌ is sometimes used as a noun independent in its meaning, (Mgh, Msb,) so as to denote material [or real] things; (Msb;) and is described by the epithets مُتَمَيِّزَةٌ [or “ distinct ”] (Mgh, Msb) and قَدِيمَةٌ [as meaning “ that has existed from eternity ”] (Mgh) and مُحْدَثَةٌ [as meaning “ that has been brought into existence ”]. (Mgh, Msb.) Thus used, (Msb,) it signifies The essence of a thing, meaning that by being which a thing is what it is, or that in being which a thing consists; or the ultimate and radical constituent of a thing: and the essence as meaning the peculiar nature of a thing: syn. حَقِيقَةٌ, (T, IB, Msb, TA,) and مَاهِيَّةٌ, (Msb,) and خَاصَّةٌ: (T, IB, TA:) it is also used as meaning a thing's self: (Mgh, * Msb:) [a man's self, or person: (see شَخْصٌ:)] and a thing; a being; anything, whatever it be; every شَىْء being a ذَات, and every ذات being a شىء: (Aboo-Sa'eed, Mgh, Msb:) and particularly a substance, or thing that subsists by itself: [hence اِسْمُ ذَاتٍ meaning a real substantive; also termed اِسْمُ عَيْنٍ: opposed to اِسْمُ مَعْنًى, i. e. an ideal substantive:] and [hence] it signifies also a word that is independent in its meaning; [i. e. ذَاتٌ (alone), though oftener used in the sense assigned above to اِسْمُ ذَاتٍ, signifies also, absolutely, a substantive;] opposed to صِفَةٌ as signifying a word that is not independent in its meaning. (Kull p. 187.) Its application to God, in the sense of حَقِيقَةٌ and خَاصَّةٌ, is forbidden by most persons: (TA:) [for] ذَاتُ ا@للّٰهِ [as meaning The essence of God], used by the scholastic theologians, is said to be an ignorant expression, because the names of God do not admit the fem. affix ة; so that one does not apply to Him the epithet عَلَّامَةٌ, though He is the all-surpassing in knowledge. (Msb.) The phrase فِى ذَاتِ ا@للّٰهِ is like فِى جَنْبِ ا@للّٰهِ [In, or in respect of, that which is the right, or due, of God; or in, or in respect of, obedience to God, or the means of obtaining nearness to God, or the way of God]: and like لِوَجْهِ ا@للّٰهِ [for the sake of God; or to obtain the countenance, or favour, or approbation, or recompense, of God]: (Msb:) or it means in obedience to God; and in the way of God or his religion: (TA:) [or it may be rendered for the sake of God Himself; and so لِوَجْهِ ا@للّٰهِ: it is said to have been used by the Arabs [of the classical age], as well as by Aboo-Temmám, [who was a Muwelled;] (Mgh, Msb, *) but some deny that it occurs in the old language. (Msb. [See, however, an ex. from a trad. voce أُخَيْشِنُ.]) [It is said that] the phrase مَجَلَّتُهُمْ ذَاتُ الإِِلٰهِ, used by En-Nábighah, (Msb,) i. e. EdhDhubyánee, (TA in art. جل,) means Their book is the service of God Himself: (Msb:) [but it seems more reasonable to render this phrase agreeably with the primary signification of ذات as meaning their book is that of God, in a sense like that in which a house of worship is said to be a house of God; for,] as some relate it, the phrase used by En-Nábighah is مَحَلَّتُهُمْ ذَاتُ الإِِلٰهِ, with حاء, [i. e. their abode is in a peculiar manner that of God,] meaning, their abode is one of pilgrimage and of sacred sites. (S and TA in art. جل.) ― -b15- ذُو is sometimes redundant [in respect of meaning, though governing as a prefixed n.]; and so is its pl. (T, * TA.) Az says, (TA,) I have heard more than one of the Arabs say, كُنَّا بِمَوْضِعِ كَذَا مَعَ ذِى عَمْرٍو, i. e. We were in such a place with Amr: (T, TA:) and كَانَ مَعَنَا ذُو عَمْرٍو, i. e. 'Amr was with us: and أَتَيْنَا ذَا يَمَنٍ, meaning أَتَيْنَا اليَمَنَ [We came to El-Yemen]. (T.) [See an ex. similar to this last, and evidently belonging to the present art., in the latter half of art. ذا. And see لَا ذَا جَرَمَ and لَا أَنْ ذَا جَرَمَ and لَا عَنْ ذَا جَرَمَ and لَا ذَا جَرَ (in which ذا is in like manner redundant, as are also أَنْ and عَنْ, the latter of which is a dial. var. of the former of them,) in art. جرم: perhaps belonging to the present art., like أَتَيْنَا ذَايَمَنٍ; or perhaps to art. ذا. See also what is said respecting ذُو prefixed to a proper name in an early portion of this paragraph.] ― -b16- It is also used in the sense of اَلَّذِى, (T, S, M, K,) in the dial. of Teiyi, (T, S, TA,) for the purpose of qualifying a determinate noun (S, M, K) by means of a proposition which it connects with that noun: (M, K:) and when thus used, it [generally] retains the same form when it denotes a dual and a pl. (S, M, K) and a fem., (S,) and exhibits no sign of case: (M, K:) you say, أَنَا ذُو عَرَفْتُ [I who knew], and ذُو سَمِعْتُ [who heard]; and هٰذِهِ المَرْأَةُ ذُو قَالَتْ كَذَا [This is the woman who said such a thing: (S:) and أَتَانِى ذُو قَالَ ذٰلِكَ [He who said that came to me]; and أَتَانِى ذُو قَالَا ذٰلِكَ [They two who said that came to me]; and أَتَانِ ذُو قَالُوا ذٰلِكَ [They who said that came to me]. (M.) But Fr says, I heard an Arab of the desert say, بِالفَضْلِ ذُو فَضَّلَكُمْ ا@للّٰهُ بِهِ وَالكَرَامَةِ ذَاتُ أَكْرَمَكُمُ ا@للّٰهُ بِهَا [By the excellence wherewith God hath made you to excel, and the honour wherewith God hath honoured you]; thus they use ذَاتُ in the place of اَلَّتِى, and they make it to be with refa in every case: and they confuse [numbers and genders] in speaking of a dual number and a pl. number [and a fem.]; they sometimes say, [for ex.,] in the case of the dual, هٰذَانِ ذُو تَعْرِفُ and هَاتَانِ ذُو تَعْرِفُ [These two whom, or which, thou knowest]; and a poet says, [namely, Sinán Ibn-El-Fahl, of the tribe of Teiyi, (Ham p. 292,)] “ فَإِِنَّ المَآءَ أَبِى وَجَدِّى
وَبِئْرِى ذُو حَفَرْتُ وَذُو طَوَيْتُ
” [For verily the water is the water of my father and my grandfather, and my well which I dug and which I cased; making ذو to relate to a fem. noun]: and some, he adds, use the dual and pl. and fem. forms; thus they say, هٰذَانَ ذَوَا قَالَا ذَاكَ [These two who said that], and هٰؤُلَآءِ ذَوُوا قَالُوا [These who said], and هٰذِهِ ذَاتُ قَالَتْ [This female who said]; and he cites the saying of a poet, “ جَمَعْتُهَا مِنْ أَيْنُقٍ سَوَابِقْ
ذَوَاتُ يَنْهَضْنَ بِغَيْرِ سَائِقْ
” [I collected them from outstripping she-camels, that rise and hasten in their pace without a driver]; and the prov., أَتَى عَلَيْهِ ذُو أَتَى عَلَى النَّاسِ, meaning الَّذِى أَتَى [i. e. What has come upon men in general has come, or came, upon him]. (T.) Accord. to the usage most in repute, ذُو in this sense is indecl., and has no variation of gender or number; but some decline it, like ذو in the sense of صَاحِب, except that they make ذَات and ذَوَات indecl., with damm for the termination, saying ذَاتُ and ذَوَاتُ in every case, if they adopt the chaste mode; otherwise, in the accus. and gen. cases, saying ذَاتِ, and in like manner ذَوَاتِ (I' Ak pp. 40 and 41.) ― -b17- They said also, لَاأَفْعَلُ ذٰلِكَ بِذِى تَسْلَمُ (M, K) and بذى تَسْلَمِينَ, (M,) and بذى تَسْلَمَانِ, (M, K,) and بذى تَسْلَمُونَ and بذىتَسْلَمْنَ, (M,) meaning I will not do that by thy, and by your, safety: (M, K:) or by God who, (M,) or by Him who, (K,) maketh thee, and you, to be in safety. (M, K.) [See also art. سلم.]
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.