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ظَهْرٌ ذ The back; contr. of بَطْنٌ: (S, A, O, Msb, K:) in a man, from the hinder part of the كَاهِل [or base of the neck] to the nearest part of the buttocks, where it terminates: (TA:) in a camel, the part containing six vertebræ on the right and left of which are [two portions of flesh and sinew called the] مَتْنَانِ: (AHeyth, T, O:) of the masc. gender: (Lh, A, K:) pl. [of pauc.] أَظْهُرٌ, and [of mult.] ظُهُورٌ and ظُهْرَانٌ. (Msb, K.) ― -b2- رَجُلٌ خَفِيفُ الظَّهْرِ (tropical:) A man having a small household to maintain: and ثَقِيلُ الظَّهْرِ (tropical:) having a large household to maintain. (K, * TA.) ― -b3- أَنْت عَلَىَّ كَظَهْرِ أُمِّى Thou art to me like the back of my mother: said by a man to his wife. (S, Mgh, Msb, K.) [This has been expl. above: see 3.] ― -b4- عَدَا فِى ظَهْرِهِ (tropical:) He stole what was behind him: (A:) [or he acted wrongfully in respect of what was behind him: for] لِصٌّ عَادِى ظَهْرٍ is expl. by the words عَدَا فِى ظَهْرٍ فَسَرَقَهُ [so that it app. means (tropical:) A thief who has acted wrongfully in respect of what was behind one, and stolen it]. (O, K.) ― -b5- أَقْرَانُ الظَّهْرِ (S, O, K) and الظُّهُورِ (O, TA) Adversaries who come to one from behind his back, in war, or fight. (S, O, K, * TA.) In the copies of the K, يُحِبُّونَكَ is erroneously put for يَجِيؤُونَكَ. (TA.) You say also, فُلَانٌ قِرْنُ الظَّهْرِ Such a one is an adversary who comes to one from behind, unknown. (IAar, As.) ― -b6- قَتَلَهُ ظَهْرًا He slew him unexpectedly; he assassinated him; syn. غِيلَةٌ. (IAar, TA.) ― -b7- جَعَلَنِى بِظَهْرٍ (tropical:) He cast me off. (TA.) And جَعَلتُ حَاجَتَهُ بِظَهْرٍ (tropical:) I cast his want behind my back: (AO, K:) and ↓ جَعَلَهَا ظِهْرِيَّةً signifies the same: (S:) and ↓ اِتَّخَذَهَا ظِهْرِيًّا , (K,) and ↓ ظِهْرِيَّةً : (TA:) or the former of the last two phrases signifies he held it in contempt; as though ظهريّا were an irreg. rel. n. from ظَهْرٌ: (TA:) or ↓ اِتَّخَذَهُ ظِهْرِيًّا signifies he neglected, or forgot, (S, O, * Msb,) him, as in the Kur xi. 94, (S, O,) or it, namely, what was said. (Msb.) And لَا تَجْعَلْ حَاجَتِى بِظَهْرٍ (tropical:) Forget not thou, or neglect not, my want: (S:) and ↓ جَعَلَهُ ظِهْرِيًّا signifies he forgot it; as well as جعله بِظَهْرٍ. (A.) And جَعَلْتُ هٰذَا الأَمْرَ بِظَهْرٍ, and رَمَيْتُهُ بِظَهْرٍ, (tropical:) I cared not for this thing. (Th, O.) ― -b8- فُلَانٌ مِنْ وَلَدِ الظَّهْرِ (assumed tropical:) Such a one is of those who do not belong to us: or of those to whom no regard is paid: (TA:) or of those who are held in contempt, and to whose ties of relationship no regard is paid. (S, TA.) ― -b9- هُوَ ا@بْنُ عَمِّهِ ظَهْرًا (tropical:) [He is his cousin on the father's side,] distantly related: contr. of دِنْيًا [and لَحًّا]. (As, A, O, TA.) ― -b10- رَجَعَ عَلَى ظَهْرِهِ [He receded, retired, or retreated]. (K in art. ثبجر.) ― -b11- هُوَ نَازِلٌ بَيْنَ ظَهْرَيْهِمْ, and ↓ بين ظَهْرَانَيْهِمْ , (S, A, O, Msb, K, *) in which latter the ا and ن are said by some to be added for corroboration, (Msb,) and for which one should not say ظَهْرَانِيهِمْ, (IF, S, O, Msb, K,) and بين أَظْهُرِهِمْ, (Msb, K,) (tropical:) He is making his abode in the midst of them; in the main body of them: (K, TA:) originally meaning he is making his abode among them for the purpose of seeking aid of them and staying himself upon them: as though it meant that the back of one of them was before him, and that of another behind him, so that he was defended in either direction: afterwards, by reason of frequency of usage, it came to be employed to signify abiding among a people absolutely. (IAth, Msb.) You say also هُوَ بَيْنَ ظَهْرَيْهِ, and ↓ بَيْنَ ظَهْرَانَيْهِ , meaning It (anything) is in the midst, or main part, of it, namely, another thing. (TA.) ― -b12- لَقِيتُهُ بَيْنَ الظَّهْرَيْنِ, and ↓ بَيْنَ الظَّهْرَانَيْنِ , (S, O, Msb, K,) (tropical:) I met him during the day, (Msb,) or during the two days, (S, O, K,) or during the three days, (K,) or the days: (S, O, Msb:) from the next preceding phrase. (TA.) And أَتَيْتُهُ مَرَّةً بَيْنَ الظَّهَرْينِ (tropical:) I came to him one day: or, accord. to Aboo-Fak'as, on a day between two years. (Fr.) And اللَّيْلِ ↓ رَأَيْتُهُ بَيْنَ ظَهْرَانَىِ (tropical:) I saw him between nightfall and daybreak. (TA.) And النَّهَارِ ↓ جِئْتُهُ بَيْنَ ظَهْرَانَىِ (tropical:) [I came to him between the beginning and end of the day]. (A.) ― -b13- تَقَلَّبَ ظَهْرًا لِبَطْنٍ (assumed tropical:) It turned over and over, or upside down, (lit. back for belly,) as a serpent does upon ground heated by the sun. (S and TA in art. قلب.) [Hence,] قَلَبْتُ الأَرْضَ ظَهْرًا لِبَطْنٍ (tropical:) [I turned the earth over, upside-down]. (A.) And [hence,] قَلَّبَ أَمْرَهُ ظَهْرًا لِبَطْنٍ, (O, * TA,) and ظَهْرَهُ لِبَطْنٍ, and ظَهْرَهُ لِبَطْنِهِ, and ظَهْرَهُ لِلْبَطْنِ, which last form is preferred by El-Farezdak to the second, because [as in the third form] the second of the two words is determinate like the first word, (tropical:) He meditated, or managed, the affair with forecast, and well. (O, * TA.) ― -b14- The Arabs used to say, هٰذَا ظَهْرُ السَّمَآءِ and هذا بَطْنُ السَّمَآءِ, both meaning (tropical:) This is the apparent, visible, part of the sky. (Fr, Az.) And the like is said of the side of a wall, which is its بَطْن to a person on the same side, and its ظَهْر to one on the other side. (Az.) ― -b15- مَا نَزَلَ مِنَ القُرْآنِ آيَةٌ إِِلَّا لَهَا ظَهْرٌ وَبَطْنٌ, [part of] a saying of Mohammad, [of which see the rest voce مُطَّلَعٌ,] means (assumed tropical:) Not a verse of the Kur-án has come down but it has a verbal expression and an interpretation: (K, * TA:) or a verbal expression and a meaning: or that which has an apparent and a known [or an exoteric] interpretation and that which has an intrinsic [or esoteric] interpretation: (TA:) or narration (K, TA) and admonition: (TA:) or [it is to be read and to be understood and taught; for] by the ظهر is meant the reading; and by the بطن, the understanding and teaching. (TA.) [See also بَطْنٌ.] ― -b16- ظَهْرٌ signifies also (tropical:) Camels on which people ride, and which carry goods; (S, * A, * O, K, * TA;) camels that carry burdens upon their backs in journeying: (TA:) [or] a beast: or a camel for riding: (Mgh:) pl. ظُهْرَانٌ. (TA.) It is said in a trad. of 'Arfajeh, فَتَنَاوَلَ السَّيْفَ مِنَ الظَّهْرِ And he reached, or took in his hand, the sword from the camels for carrying burdens and for riding: and in another, أَتَأْذَنُ لَنَا فِى نَحْرِ ظَهْرِنَا Dost thou permit us to slaughter our camels which we ride? (TA.) And one says also, هُوَ عَلَى ظَهْرٍ (tropical:) He is determined upon travel: (K:) as though he had already mounted a beast for that purpose. (TA.) ― -b17- [Hence, app.,] (assumed tropical:) Property consisting of camels and sheep or goats: (TA:) or much property. (K, TA.) ― -b18- (assumed tropical:) The short side [or lateral half] of a feather: (S, O, K:) pl. ظُهْرَانٌ: (S, M, K, TA, &c.:) opposed to بَطْنٌ, sing. of بُطْنَانٌ, (TA,) which latter signifies the “ long sides: ” (S, TA:) and ↓ ظُهَارٌ signifies the same as ظَهْرٌ, (K,) or the same as ظُهْرَانٌ, being an irregular pl.; and this is meant by the saying الظُّهَارُ بِالضَّمِ الجَمَاعَةُ, mentioned in a later place in the K [in such a manner as to have led to the supposition that ظُهَارٌ is also syn. with جَمَاعَةٌ]: (TA:) AO says that among the feathers of arrows are the ظُهَار, which are those that are put [upon an arrow] of the ظَهْر [or outer side] of the عَسِيب [app. here meaning the shaft] of the feather; (S, TA;) i. e., the shorter side, which is the best kind of feather; as also ظُهْرَان: sing. ظَهْرٌ: (TA:) ISd says that the ظُهْرَان are those parts of the feathers of the wing that are exposed to the sun and rain: (TA:) Lth says that the ظُهَار are those parts of the feathers of the wing that are apparent. (O, TA.) One says, رِشْ سَهْمَكَ بِظُهْرَانٍ وَلَا تَرِشْهُ بِبُطْنَانٍ [Feather thine arrow with short sides of feathers, and feather it not with long sides of feathers]. (S, TA.) [De Sacy supposes that ظُهُورٌ and بُطُونٌ are also pls. of ظَهْرٌ and بَطْنٌ thus used: (see his “ Chrest. Arabe, ” sec. ed., tome ii., p. 374:) but his reasons do not appear to me to be conclusive.] ↓ ظُهَارٌ and ظُهْرَانٌ are also used as epithets: you say, رِيشٌ ظُهَارٌ and رِيشٌ ظُهْرَانٌ. (TA.) ― -b19- [ظَهْرُ الكَفِّ and ↓ ظَاهِرُهَا mean (assumed tropical:) The back of the hand. And in like manner, ظَهْرُ القَدَمِ and ↓ ظَاهِرُهَا mean (assumed tropical:) The upper, or convex, side, or back, of the human foot, corresponding to the back of the hand, including the instep: opposed to بَطْن and بَاطِن. And ظَهْرُ اللِّسَانِ means (assumed tropical:) The upper surface of the tongue.] ― -b20- And ظَهْرٌ also signifies (tropical:) A way by land. (S, M, O, Msb, K.) This expression is used when there is a way by land and a way by sea. (M.) You say, سَارُوا فِى طَرِيقِ الظَّهْرِ (tropical:) They journeyed by land. (A.) ― -b21- And (assumed tropical:) An elevated tract of land or ground; as also ↓ ظَاهِرةٌ : (A:) or rugged and elevated land or ground; (JK, K;) as also ↓ ظَاهِرَةٌ : (JK:) opposed to بَطْنٌ, which signifies “ soft and plain and fine and low land or ground: ” (TA:) and ↓ ظَوَاهِرُ [pl. of. ظَاهِرَةٌ] signifies (assumed tropical:) elevated tracts of land or ground: (S, K:) you say, هَاجَتْ ظَوَاهِرُ الأَرْضِ, meaning, (assumed tropical:) the herbs, or leguminous plants, of the elevated tracts of land, or ground, dried up: (As, S, L:) and ↓ ظَاهِرٌ signifies (assumed tropical:) the higher, or highest, part of a mountain; (ISh, L, TA;) whether its exterior be plain or not: (TA:) and ↓ ظَاهِرَةٌ , the same, of anything: (L:) when you have ascended upon the ظَهْر of a mountain, you are upon its ظَاهِرَة. (TA.) ― -b22- سَالَ وَادِيهِمْ ظَهْرًا means (assumed tropical:) Their valley flowed with the rain of their own land: opposed to دُرْءًا, meaning, “ from other rain: ” (IAar, O, K: *) or the former signifies their valley flowed with its own rain: and the latter, “ with other than its own rain: ” (TA:) and some say ↓ ظُهْرًا , which Az thinks the better form. (O, TA.) ― -b23- [Hence, probably,] أَصَبْتُ مِنْهُ مَطَرَ ظَهْرٍ (assumed tropical:) I obtained from him, or it, much good. (Sgh, O, K.) ― -b24- And another signification of ظَهْرٌ is What is absent, or hidden, or concealed, from one. (O, K.) ― -b25- It is sometimes prefixed to another noun to give plainness and force to the expression; as in ظَهْرُ الغَيْبِ and ظَهْرُ القَلْبِ, meaning نَفْسُ الغَيْبِ and نَفْسُ القَلْبِ: (Msb:) or it is redundant in these instances. (Mgh.) Lebeed says, describing a [wild] cow going about after a beast of prey that had eaten her young one, “ وَتَسَمَّعَتْ رِزَّ الأَنِيسِ فَرَاعَهَا
عَنْ ظَهْرِ غَيْبٍ وَالأَنِيسُ سَقَامُهَا
” [And she heard the sound of man, and it frightened her, from a place that concealed what was in it; for man is her malady; i. e., a cause of pain and trouble and death to her]: (TA:) meaning, she heard the sound of the hunters, &c. (TA in art. غيب.) And you say, تَنَاوَلَهُ بِظَهْرِ الغَيْبِ بِمَا يَسُوؤُهُ He carped at him behind the back, or in absence, by saying what would grieve him. (TA in art. غيب.) And تَكَلَّمْتُ بِهِ عَنْ ظَهْرِ الغَيْبِ (A, O) or عن ظَهْرِ غَيْبٍ (TA) [app., (tropical:) I spoke it by memory; in the absence of a book or the like; as one says in modern Arabic, عَلَى الغَائِب. See also غَيْبٌ.] And قَرَأَهُ عَنْ ظَهْرِ القَلْبِ (tropical:) He recited it by heart, or memory; without book: (L, K: [in the latter, مِنْ is put in the place of عَنْ; but the right reading is that in the L: and in the CK is an omission here, to be supplied by the insertion of وَقَرَأَهُ:]) and ↓ قرأه ظَاهِرًا and قرأه عَلَى ظَهْرِ لِسَانِهِ [signify the same]. (K.) And حَمَلَ القُرْآنَ عَلَى ظَهْرِ لِسَانِهِ like حَفِظَهُ عَلَى ظَهْرِ قَلْبِهِ (tropical:) [He knew the Kur-án by heart]. (A, * O, TA.) ― -b26- One says also, فُلَانٌ يَأْكُلُ عَلَى ظَهْرِ يَدِ فُلَانٍ (tropical:) Such a one eats at the expense of such a one. (A, O, K. *) And in like manner, الفُقَرَآءُ يَأْكُلُونَ عَلَى ظَهْرِ أَيْدِى النَّاسِ (tropical:) The poor eat at the expense of the people. (A, TA.) And أَعْطَاهُ عَنْ ظَهْرِ يَدٍ (tropical:) He gave him originally; without compensation. (O, * K; but in some copies of the K we find مِنْ in the place of عَنْ.) It is said [in a trad.], أَفْضَلُ الصَّدَقَةِ مَا كَانَ عَنْ ظَهْرِ غِنًى (tropical:) The most excellent of alms is that which is [derived] from competence; ظهر: (Msb:) or simply عَنْ غِنًى, the word ظهر being here redundant: (Mgh:) or from manifest competence upon which one relies, and in which he seeks aid against calamities, or afflictions: or from what remains after fight: (Msb:) or from superfluous property. (TA.) -A2- See also ظَهِيرٌ -A3- قِدْرُ ظَهْرٍ means (assumed tropical:) An old cooking-pot: (O, K: *) pl. قُدُورُ ظُهُورٍ: (O:) as though, because of its oldness, it were thrown behind the back. (TA.)
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