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[p. 14] been satisfied. Each house was sufficient to itself, for it had its water, its fuel, its lights, its stocks of food in the cellar, and a snow storm that to us would be a calamity was to them an inconvenience.

Such independence is impossible now. A bargain hunter drops a brass curtain rod on the subway track, and in countless homes, from Milton to Medford, the evening meal is late. The breaking of a steam pipe in a power house puts a city in darkness. We all depend for our existence upon each other; and we all carry the same time in our pockets to regulate not only our own movements, but the movements of everybody else. The man with a slow watch, or no watch, the world pushes one side, and there he stays until he rouses himself.

The clock itself has undergone changes. When John Albree brought it here, perhaps twenty years after it was made, it had a bell on top supported by the four finials, which are pierced for that purpose. It had a short, ‘bob’ pendulum that received its name from its rapid appearance at either side through slits in the doors, which have also disappeared. This ‘bob’ pendulum with this escapement was of the form in use from 1658, when the pendulum was invented, until the long, or royal, pendulum and anchor escapement were invented in 1675. Sometime in the eighteenth century the clock fell into the hands of a blacksmith who fixed clocks when horseshoeing and nail-making were dull. He cleared away the alarm and its works to make the necessary changes so that he could attach the long pendulum. The form of the grandfather's, or hall, clock was developed from this clock. First, a hood was made to keep out the dust; then the hood was supported by a long case which protected the pendulum, for the hanging weights and swinging ‘bob’ must have proved to be an attractive plaything for a child or a kitten. The pillars at the side, the arched top of the dial, and the brass finials then became features of the tall clock and are still retained.

A study of this clock establishes two points; first, the

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