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[p. 12] twelve and one-half cents per week for washing, and for ‘rations’ at five cents per day. What these ‘rations’ were (which one man charged as ‘allowance’) may be readily conjectured, and the fact the bills were approved and paid, throws some light on the custom of the time.

Tolls on merchandise down the Merrimack to Newburyport had to be prepaid, while those through the canal could be paid at the office in Charlestown, the goods being security for the same. During the earliest years the canal was being constructed, a canal was built around Pawtucket Falls at Chelmsford, and for twenty-five years was used for the purpose of navigation. Then some capitalists were induced to buy the same and utilize the power of the Merrimack it furnished; the result was the town, and soon the city, of Lowell. In 1831 Mr. Eddy was directed to survey a route for a branch canal from Billerica to the Hamilton Mills in Lowell, to save four miles and Pawtucket tolls. He reported the project feasible, but counselled delay. The reason is not hard to discover in the following letter to the corporation.

November 10, 1831.
gentlemen:—I am now laying out the route of the R. R. from Boston to Lowell. We must cross your canal once, and in some places pass so near as to take some of your land. Will you have the goodness to appoint some person or persons to make such arrangements as will be most advantageous to all parties.

I am, gentlemen, very respectfully,

Your obt. servant,

P. T. Jackson. Pres. B. & L. R. R.

The result of the conference thus suggested was the building of the embankment at West Medford, carrying the railway nine and one-half feet above the canal (when full), with abutments thirty-four feet apart, and an additional wall supporting the tow-path. During the early

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