[p. 2] having been occupied in acquiring title to the land and surveying in the route. Samuel Thompson of Woburn made the preliminary survey, and the work was under the charge of Col. Baldwin, whose interest the enterprise only ceased with his life in 1808. During work in Wilmington, was discovered the tree from which the famous Baldwin apple originated. Mr. Thompson, who was a soldier of the French War, and whose diary is replete with interest, seems to have labored under a disadvantage, but his work led up to a complete survey by an expert survey, Samuel Weston. He found that the Merrimack River at Chelmsford was lower than the highest point the canal would traverse, instead of higher, as was at first supposed; so that other water than that of the Merrimack must fill the canal in its course through the Middlesex towns to the Charles, in Charlestown. Eleven streams of varying size flowed across, and all but one below its course. The Concord River at North Billerica crossed it at grade and being at its highest level, would supply it in either direction with water. Here, in the seventeenth century, a mill was erected and thither came the colonists with their corn to be ground. Later woolen mills were established, but the ancient terms of the grant required the maintenance of the grist mill; which requirement the canal company carried out, strengthening and making tighter the dam in 1798, and thirty years later, building the present stone dam. This still holds the flood of water, and supplies power to the great factories of the Talbot and the Faulkner companies.

Over all the other streams the canal had to be carried and due regard paid to their changeful moods. A brook that in summer is insignificant, in spring may assume threatening proportions, or carry destruction in its track. Some were but slightly lower; while the Shawsheen was spanned by a wooden aqueduct one hundred and thirtyseven feet long, elevated thirty feet above its current. While the aqueducts were costly, yet the long stretches

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